Content Protection. Flag as inappropriate. It syncs automatically with your account and allows you to read online or offline wherever you are. Please follow the detailed Help center instructions to transfer the files to supported eReaders. More related to business. See more. Pablo Triana. Praise for Lecturing Birds On Flying "Finally, a book taking a critical look at quantitative finance models, illuminating both their flawed fantasy assumptions as well as the uncritical use of such models on Wall Street, in many cases, leading to billion dollar losses.
Espen Gaarder Haug, trader, thinker, and author of Derivatives Models on Models "A thoroughly readable explanation of the problems that have beset the models and quantitative techniques that have underpinned so much of finance in recent years. Les Nemethy. The most viable exit strategies for owners of mid-sized companies For many business owners, cashing out of a business is a lifelong dream. The book Includes 30 relevant mini-case studies on business exit planning and transaction management, as well as a glossary of frequently used technical terms Details options for those owners who no longer want to be active in the business, as well as for those who want to remain invested Covers a wide range of topics related to business exit planning and transaction management, including IPO, MBO, refinancing, ESOPs, building an exit team, business plan and valuation, due diligence, and estate planning Regardless of whether a business owner seeks an immediate exit or a staged exit over time, Business Exit Planning provides a comprehensive strategy and road map to define exit-related objectives.
Evan Bulmer. CEOs and business owners face an ever increasingly complex world in which they do business.
They are making decisions from accessing viable markets to sell their products and services to attracting and retaining staff all whilst making sure the bills can be paid on time. There are thousands of decisions and actions being taken every day by the people in the businesses they lead. Are they the right ones? The ultimate scorecard of any business is the profit and loss statement and balance sheet, and this book will provide the equivalent of night vision- numbers vision- to improve that score dramatically.
Unless you truly understand the numbers that matter it is the metaphorical equivalent of trying to drive a Maserati at kph at night with the lights off and looking in the rear-vision mirror. So sit back and relax we are about to put the high beam on and have you safely looking forward into your heads up display. Exotic Options Trading. Book By giving readers the necessary tools to understand exotic options, this book serves as a manual to equip the reader with the skills to price and risk manage the most common and the most complex exotic options.
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Similar ebooks. The Intelligent Investor, Rev. Benjamin Graham. The greatest investment advisor of the twentieth century, Benjamin Graham taught and inspired people worldwide. Michael Lewis. The theme of the Annual Meeting, Creating Actionable Knowledge, encourages the organization and its members to explore the influence and meaning of its research on management and organizations. Recent attempts to study entrepreneurship as a form of expertise, rather than a collection of traits and abilities have led to the development of the theory of effectuation. Effectuation is a sequence of non-predictive strategies in dynamic problem-solving that is primarily means-driven, where goals emerge as a consequence of stakeholder commitments rather than vice versa.
Most important, effectuation isolates, identifies, and exploits techniques that seek to control the future without having to predict it. In this paper we 1 bring effectuation to psychology; 2 develop it further by examining key behavioral constructs that make effectual action possible; and, 3 derive possible implications for future research in psychology, particularly in relation to a more pluralistic understanding of human rationality. This study focuses on how founding institutions impact intraorganizational capabilities and how such imprints may have different external manifestations in subsequent historical eras.
We introduce the concept of exaptation to organizational theory, identifying an important process whereby the historical origin of a capability differs from its current usefulness. Action plays a central role in entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education.
Does Carbon-Conscious Behavior Drive Firm Performance?: An Event Study on the Global 500 Companies
Based on action regulation theory, we developed an action-based entrepreneurship training. The training put a particular focus on action insofar as the participants learned action principles and engaged in the start-up of a business during the training. We hypothesized that a set of action-regulatory factors mediates the effect of the training on entrepreneurial action.
As hypothesized, the training had positive effects on action-regulatory factors entrepreneurial goal intentions, action planning, action knowledge, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the action-regulatory factors mediated the effect of the training on entrepreneurial action. Furthermore, entrepreneurial action and business opportunity identification mediated the effect of the training on business creation. Our study shows that action-regulatory mechanisms play an important role for action-based entrepreneurship trainings and business creation.
Five areas are identified wherein more development might enhance the current model of strategic entrepreneurship SE : exploration—exploitation, opportunity, newness, micro—macro interaction, and dynamics.
Complexity science is presented as an alternative theoretical lens for addressing these issues, and enhancing the potential of SE in a world characterized by fluctuations, irreversibility, nonlinearity, and instabilities. Using this lens, a rearticulation of SE is proposed that centers on the notion of an opportunity space and a paradigm built around forms, flows, and functions. Affordable loss involves decision makers estimating what they might be able to put at risk and determining what they are willing to lose in order to follow a course of action.
The article also discusses the implications of affordable loss for the economics of strategic entrepreneurship.
Research summary The endogenous formation of entrepreneurial opportunity has become an important theoretical perspective. Research to date focuses on initial opportunity creation dynamics leading to venture formation. This excludes the ongoing enactment of opportunity that takes place after venture founding. We focus on this phenomenon, arguing that opportunities must be continually reproduced through maintenance of consensus among stakeholders about their viability. Implications for future theory and research are also discussed. Managerial summary Previous entrepreneurship research has focused attention on the process through which opportunity ideas become objectified and perceived as external facts by entrepreneurs and their stakeholders during venture formation.
While such attention is critical, we argue that venture founding marks the beginning, rather than the end, of a dynamic process in which the fact-like status of opportunities is maintained. If stakeholder consensus about opportunity viability is disrupted, it raises questions about this factual status and opens up the possibility that the opportunity is a subjective cognition of the entrepreneur rather than an objective reality. We also suggest that entrepreneurs may reduce the likelihood of this phenomenon by managing some of the factors that induce it. The article presents abstracts on management topics which include hidden conflicts in organizations, market formation and international management.
Business plans are advocated by many business support professionals and others, such as educators in higher education institutions, because they suit their purposes. A typical view is that a business plan is?
Burns, ; but their hegemony is now being questioned. Sarasvathy suggests that effectuation is the method often favoured by expert entrepreneurs and this paper seeks to combine it with an exploration view of entrepreneurship to produce an alternative tool for start-up ventures. The paper compares the pros and cons of each approach and suggests that an exploration approach is often more natural, logical and effective than the business plan based alternative.
We offer insight into a how sociospatial contexts may be structured to better evaluate the entrepreneurial facilitation process and b why academic entrepreneurship in the social sciences and humanities may differ from that in the hard sciences. Our findings illustrate the importance of bridging innovation using twin skills to balance research and commercial goals, and the need for codifying knowledge capacities and creating new or changing existing institutional structures to legitimize and facilitate entrepreneurial activity.
The research also demonstrates the great value of auto-ethnographic techniques to bring fresh insight to the study of entrepreneurship. Directions for future research are offered. In this paper, we outline several interesting observations about international entrepreneurship IE research through the theoretical lens of effectuation. In doing so, we show how an effectual approach can help resolve four central conflicts and knowledge gaps identified in two recent comprehensive reviews of IE. We then present an illustrative case study from India that provides an intriguing comparison with the most recent modification of the Uppsala model to integrate with effectuation theory.
Finally, we offer four provocative possibilities for future research at the intersection of IE and effectuation research. This study articulates the importance of an entrepreneurial method approach to leadership, relevant contextual issues, and policy implications for developing entrepreneurial ecosystems in a rural context. The entrepreneurial method is proposed as the foundations of a new leadership style to facilitate the creation and success of rural entrepreneurial ecosystems.
The contextual issues that make rural entrepreneurial ecosystems unique include the critical need for entrepreneurial leadership in their creation and development; the role of entrepreneurial social infrastructure in enabling and supporting development; the need to leverage networks and virtual platforms to access markets, knowledge, and funding; the scarcity of and need to develop enterprising individuals; the role of institutions and supportive governance; and the importance of natural capital. Scholars have criticized effectuation research for being insufficiently embedded in a nomological network of practically relevant antecedents.
To address this research gap, the current study uses a mixed-methods design. The study confirms the multifaceted nature of effectuation; experimentation is the only effectual logic that reflects influences of all the determinants. Investor influence displays the broadest array of effects on the decision logics, offering both theoretical embeddedness for effectuation and a new, practically relevant driver.
Failure has been consistently extolled as a fundamental learning experience in entrepreneurship. However, researchers acknowledge that this pervasive view of failure is supported in the literature almost solely on the basis of anecdotal evidence. This study empirically investigates the type of knowledge that can be learned through a failure experience as well as the factors that moderate the learning process. This relationship is particularly strong for those entrepreneurs operating with an intuitive cognitive style, utilizing expert opportunity prototypes, and relying less upon prior professional experience.
Social enterprise has gained widespread acclaim as a tool for addressing social and environmental problems. Yet, because these organizations integrate the social welfare and commercial logics, they face the challenge of pursuing goals that frequently conflict with each other. Studies have begun to address how established social enterprises can manage these tensions, but we know little about how, why, and with what consequences social entrepreneurs mix competing logics as they create new organizations. To address this gap, we develop a theoretical model based in identity theory that helps to explain: 1 how the commercial and social welfare logics become relevant to entrepreneurship, 2 how different types of entrepreneurs perceive the tension between these logics, and 3 the implications this has for how entrepreneurs go about recognizing and developing social enterprise opportunities.
Our approach responds to calls from organizational and entrepreneurship scholars to extend existing frameworks of opportunity recognition and development to better account for social enterprise creation. This study relates entrepreneurial orientation to new venturing and strategic renewal through opportunity identifying behavior.
Two behaviors are contrasted: adaptive searching opportunity discovery versus generative searching opportunity creation. Based on samples of manufacturing and service organizations, this paper posits and presents evidence that adaptive searching mediates the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on new venturing and strategic renewal in manufacturing.
Conversely, generative searching mediates these relationships in manufacturing and service contexts. This research, thus, considers the importance of an integrated view on corporate strategic entrepreneurship and highlights industry differences in the way organizations successfully implement an entrepreneurial strategy. Research has identified crucial antecedents of corporate entrepreneurship. Research has also identified crucial antecedents of entrepreneurial thinking. This article uses lessons from social cognition to explicitly link these two issues. We adapt an intentions-based model of how to promote entrepreneurial thinking from its original domain of individual entrepreneurship and translate that model to the domain of corporate entrepreneurship.
From our intentions-based model of the social cognition of entrepreneurial teams, we emphasize the importance of perceptions of desirability and feasibility and that these perceptions are from the team as well as the individual perspective. This leads to three propositions about entrepreneurial teams and an outline of the opportunities for future research. We posit that individuals who are actively engaged in activities to develop their own venture will exhibit hindsight bias when recalling their startup experiences.
We observe that those who fail to develop their startup activity into an operating business demonstrate substantial hindsight bias concerning the probability of venture formation. In particular, the recalled probability of success, reported after their decision to quit, is lower than the probability of success solicited during the nascent process. We argue that the systematic distortion of the past has important implications for individuals involved in the venturing process.
Specifically, we suggest that these individuals are at risk of overestimating their chances of success when starting future nascent activity if they do not correct for their optimistic tendencies. The evidence from this study suggests it is important to recognize that what nascent entrepreneurs believe they experienced, and what they actually experienced, may not be equivalent. In uncertain environments, entrepreneurial experts have a tendency to engage in effectuation, a transformative decision-making response, rather than in prediction-based decision making Sarasvathy, Recent research has also found that venture founders differ in their application of both effectual and causal approaches Mauer, Yet, little research has investigated why and when entrepreneurs use an effectual decision-making approach rather than a causal decision-making approach.
In this paper we extend theory by exploring the relationship between the effectual vs. We propose that entrepreneurs differ in their use of decision making reasoning rather than adopt a single effectual vs. The rejection reasons generally refer to market and execution risk; this finding holds for every step of the process for proposals that pass the pre-screen. Angel group members focus more on market and execution risk than agency risk, similar to venture capitalists.
Inexperienced entrepreneurs are rejected for market and product reasons. Decision-making by the studied angel group members differs from that generally described for independent angels. The selection of the entry mode in an international market is of key importance for the venture. A process-based perspective on entry mode selection can add to the International Business and International Entrepreneurship literature.
Framing the international market entry as an entrepreneurial process, this paper analyzes the antecedents and consequences of causation and effectuation in the entry mode selection.
For the analysis, regression-based techniques were used on a sample of 65 gazelles. The results indicate that experienced entrepreneurs tend to apply effectuation rather than causation, while uncertainty does not have a systematic influence. Entrepreneurs using causation-based international new venture creation processes tend to engage in export-type entry modes, while effectuation-based international new venture creation processes do not predetermine the entry mode. At the same time, their relationship bears significant potential for conflict Yitshaki, Conflict between entrepreneurs and their investors only gains attention recently e.
Collewaert, ; Zacharakis et al. We choose the theory of effectuation as a framework to investigate the antecedents of task conflict. Therefore this study aims to shed light on the question which and why specific dimensions of effectuation and causation lead to conflict between entrepreneurs and VCFs. This paper focuses on initial team size and membership change of new venture teams in two studies: 1 a panel study of emerging ventures, and 2 a cross-sectional study of new ventures.
The findings suggest that larger initial team size provides an advantage for new organizations, and that the benefits of adding and dropping team members are contingent on the stage of development of the organization and the dynamism of the environment. Both external environment and team composition factors are associated with turnover in venture teams.
The objective of this research is to explore the extent to which current models of decision- making and entrepreneurial cognition are relevant to a sample of true novice entrepreneurs, those who are in the process of founding their first business venture. The need arises because of the high rates of churning observed in populations of young firms that require a constant inflow of new ventures to renew the stock of businesses Ganguly, Whilst some studies of the behaviour of entrepreneurs do focus on relatively young firms e. The thesis seeks to address this gap in the literature.
A sample of true novice entrepreneurs, that founded businesses in and , is interviewed to explore their decision-making and cognition regarding a realistic new business case study. The approach replicates that used by other authors who have studied expert entrepreneurs Sarasvathy, ; Sarasvathy, ; Chandler et al. The sample of 32 true novices was a randomised sub-set of business founders in the UK. The key findings were contrary to the hypotheses; the true novices were both more effectual and more casual than expected; and furthermore were frequently using feedback loops in their decision-making.
In addition, as the novice entrepreneurs reflected upon their experiences that informed their decisions, the literature predicts that novice entrepreneurs would have to adopt analytical approaches to decision making as they lack salient experiences to inform their decisions in the early years of trading. The outcome of the experimental protocol offers insights into the extent to which the current literature captures the decision-making processes and entrepreneurial cognition of true novice entrepreneurs.
The evidence is mixed, offering the opportunity for further refinement of existing theoretical constructs, and reinforcing the relevance of alternative theories of cognition and decision making for novice entrepreneurs, for government policies and the support networks and that provide resources to assist the creation and survival of new entrepreneurial ventures.
In addition, for novice entrepreneurs, this research examined the relevance and influence of their prior experiences and emotions on their entrepreneurial decision-making. However, the results showed novices referencing a wide variety of experiences, with the majority of these based on personal events that they had directly experienced either in their current start-up or previous work activity.
Scholars have asserted that national culture has an influence on strategic decisions during new venture creation processes. One of the more promising frameworks describing these processes is that of Sarasvathy, known as the Effectuation framework. Within this framework, the role of national culture has not been embedded. Research has been done in 16 countries around the world among entrepreneurs using the Think aloud method to get further insight in the role of national culture if effectual processes are set in a different context.
Hierarchical multiple regression analysis findings show that national culture has a significant relationship with Effectual processes. This study highlights the importance of including national culture in studying new venture creation in different countries in general and Effectuation in particular. Research Summary This study develops and tests a counterfactual model of the relationship between formal written business plans and the achievement of new venture viability. This is important because extant theory remains oppositional, and there is a practical need to provide guidance to founders on the utility of formal plans.
To test our model, we use propensity score matching to identify the impact that founder, venture, and environmental factors have on the decision to write a formal plan selection effects. Having isolated these selection effects, we test whether or not these plans help founders achieve venture viability performance effects.
Our results, using data on 1, founders, identify two key results: 1 selection effects matter in the decision to plan; and 2 it pays to plan. Managerial Summary This study assesses whether founders who write formal plans are more likely to achieve new venture viability. This is important because, despite its popularity, there is considerable debate about the value of plans.bbmpay.veritrans.co.id/pinos-puente-conocer-mujeres.php
Our results show that better-educated founders, those wanting to grow and innovate, and those needing external finance are more likely to plan. Subsequently, having isolated what prompts planning, we assess if writing a plan actually promotes venture viability. We find that it pays to plan. This article shows how human information processing can moderate entrepreneurial opportunity identification. Venture ideas are at the heart of entrepreneurship Davidsson, Further, according to the notion of an individual-opportunity nexus venture ideas are closely associated with certain individual characteristics relatedness.
This study examines how entrepreneurs weigh considerations of different forms of novelty and relatedness as well as potential financial gain in assessing the attractiveness of venture ideas. This research explores whether relationships between young firms and certain early-stage seed funders portray certification effects that influence venture capitalist VC screening decisions.
The Impact of Environmental Management on Firm Performance | Management Science
Specifically, we analyze how varying attributes of angel and crowdfunded investments certify venture quality in the minds of VCs as they make due diligence screening decisions. Results from two experiments utilizing VCs making 1, screening decisions demonstrate that the heterogeneous nature of the attributes of angels and the crowd can produce highly influential certification effects. Even though entrepreneurs often cite the use of intuition as a basis for their venturing decisions, verifying that entrepreneurs are actually using intuition is very difficult.
We propose characteristics of entrepreneurs that increase the likelihood that they will attribute intuition as a basis for decisions during the venture founding process. We then delineate characteristics that make the development and effective use of entrepreneurial intuition more likely.
Theoretical implications for researchers studying intuition and practical implications for entrepreneurs using intuition are discussed. Abstract We extend current knowledge on new venture legitimation by focusing both on how environmental entrepreneurs enact their values and beliefs during the legitimation process and on the resultant business and personal consequences.
On the basis of our longitudinal analysis of six cases studies we develop a staged process model of legitimation. Our findings suggest three novel insights. Second, we are able to explain how and why these changes in legitimation take place. The entrepreneurs learned to adapt their legitimation work by engaging in reflection and reflexivity about both the business and personal consequences of their work in each stage.
Finally, we detail the significance of dissonance to this process as a trigger for changes in behavior. Family firms can enjoy substantial longevity. Ironically, however, they are often imperiled by the very process that is essential to this longevity. Using the concept of managerial discretion as a starting point, we use a human agency lens to introduce the construct of successor discretion as a factor that affects the family business succession process. While important in general, successor discretion is positioned as a particularly relevant factor for productively managing organizational renewal in family businesses.
This study represents a foundation for future empirical research investigating the role of agency in entrepreneurial action in the family business context, which consequently can contribute to the larger research literature on succession and change. Abstract While relatively weak inhibition is often associated with unproductive behavior and pathologies, it may favor acting on entrepreneurial opportunities. This raises the question of how others perceive and respond to disinhibition in an entrepreneurial agent. Triangulating from psychology and entrepreneurship literatures, behavioral disinhibition in an entrepreneur is hypothesized to have ambivalent, overall negative effects on potential resource providers.
A randomized experiment tested the hypotheses. Results were significant, with moderate to large effect sizes. The findings suggest that behavioral proclivities facilitating individual entrepreneurial action may paradoxically undermine organizing. The work contributes to an emergent literature on ostensibly dark-side characteristics relevant to entrepreneurship, extends knowledge on entrepreneur behavior influencing potential resource providers, and highlights unresolved tensions relevant to opportunity pursuit e.
Extending this body of research, we theorize how affective valence and affective activation work together to impact opportunity identification. We emphasize that to understand affective influences, both valence and activation should be included because they each influence active search effort and knowledge integration. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our study and suggest that future research should include more dynamic relationships among affect and entrepreneurial outcomes.
This unique disequilibrium perspective, which takes into account institutional contexts and multiple levels of analysis, offers new theoretical insight into how entrepreneurs create opportunities through expectations of an imagined future and exploit opportunities through continuous resource combination and recombination. Conceptualizing time as subjective and heterogeneous, it facilitates the examination of patterns in entrepreneurial activity, especially when combined with longer time frames. And it offers hermeneutics and ideal-types as alternatives to statistical models, for developing a theoretically sophisticated understanding of how entrepreneurial processes unfold.
Abstract This paper offers a fresh perspective on national culture and entrepreneurship research. Developing arguments based on culture-entrepreneurship fit, we predict that charismatic and self-protective CLTs positively affect entrepreneurship. They provide a context that enables entrepreneurs to be co-operative in order to initiate change but also to be self-protective and competitive so as to safeguard their venture and avoid being exploited. We further theorize that CLTs are more proximal drivers of cross-country differences in entrepreneurship as compared with distal cultural values.
We find support for our propositions in a multi-level study of 42 countries. Cultural values of uncertainty avoidance and collectivism influence entrepreneurship mainly indirectly, via charismatic and self-protective CLTs. We do not find a similar indirect effect for cultural practices. Abstract Although entrepreneurship scholars highlight bootstrapping as a key resource acquisition approach to respond to the inherent resource constraints that nascent ventures face, little is known about what causes nascent ventures to engage in bootstrapping.
Theory highlights the environment as an important determinant of bootstrapping activity. In a more fine-grained analysis we gain insights into how these antecedents shape the use of particular bootstrapping strategies. Findings contribute to our understanding of factors driving resource management approaches in nascent ventures. What good are positive emotions?.
Review of General Psychology, 2, — The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, — The value of positive emotions. This article helps develop the creativity perspective within entrepreneurship in two ways. First, it elaborates on the nature of opportunity as a creative product. Rather than viewing opportunities as single insights, it suggests that they are emerging through the continuous shaping and development of raw ideas that are acted upon.
Second, rather than attributing them to a particular individual, it highlights the contextual and social influences that affect the generation and shaping of ideas. This helps move entrepreneurship research beyond the single-person, single-insight attribution that currently permeates it. This case concerns Biohit, a family-owned biotechnology company established in Finland in , selling liquid handling and diagnostics products in the global market. Hence, this case describes the prior and initial phases of Biohit, examining also its commitment to innovation and its management practices. At this point, Osmo was intending to hand over his executive position to someone from outside the family, on the grounds that none of his three sons was able or willing to take up the position.
However, he planned to continue as owner, inventor, and full-time board member of Biohit. The managers of Biohit had high hopes of making a breakthrough with diagnostics products that had been under intensive development over a long period. The management of knowledge across country units is critical to multinational corporations MNCs. Building on the argument that boundary spanning leads to the development of creative problem solving outcomes, this study advances the concept of MNC knowledge transformation and examines its relationship with solution creativity.
Using questionnaire data on 67 problem solving projects, we find that opportunity formation is an underlying mechanism linking MNC knowledge transformation to the development of creative solutions. These insights contribute to our understanding of boundary spanning in global organizations by substantiating MNC knowledge transformation and elaborating the relationship between boundary spanning and creative solution development. If successful at knowledge transformation, collaborators from across the MNC can construct previously unimagined opportunities for the generation of creative outcomes.
Research summary Opportunity creation, effectuation, and bricolage are three concepts that describe value creation and the central role of entrepreneurial action in that process. Although research often conceptualizes these concepts as interrelated, precisely how they relate to and complement one another and where they diverge remains unclear.
This article examines the roots of each of these concepts and their underlying assumptions, organizing them within a unifying conceptual frame. Our analysis reveals a set of entailing implications that can guide future conceptual and empirical work in entrepreneurship, and it advances our understanding of value creation and capture in strategy, organization theory, management, and related fields.
Managerial summary What are entrepreneurs doing? At the highest level of abstraction, entrepreneurs are identifying and exploiting opportunities. Recently, several lines of research have examined how certain types of entrepreneurial action can result in forming, rather than merely encountering, opportunities. Scholars engaged in this work have used both deductive and observational approaches, which have been rarely examined jointly or integrated into a comprehensive framework.
This article focuses on the literature on opportunity creation, effectuation, and bricolage, examining each of the approaches and their underlying assumptions, and it organizes them within a unifying conceptual frame. Doing so reveals avenues for future work, in particular the development of new theories of opportunity formation, and implications for research in related fields such as strategic management, organization theory, and economics.
We examine why commercialization of interdisciplinary research, especially from distant scientific domains, is different from commercialization of inventions from specialized or proximate domains. We use a sample of 3, university invention disclosures to test whether variation in the types of experience of the scientists on a team influences the likelihood that an invention will be licensed. We proffer evidence to support our hypotheses that anticipated coordination costs influence whether an invention is licensed and that specific forms of team experience attenuate such coordination costs.
The implications of these findings for theories of coordination, innovation, and entrepreneurship are discussed. We argue for the increasing importance of providing graduate students with skills in technology entrepreneurship and the commercialization of technology.
We describe the lessons we have learned from 14 years of developing commercialization of technology pedagogy and adapting it for use on four continents and within numerous corporations. We demonstrate that the theory-driven approach that we use to shape the curriculum improves our ability to learn from our mistakes and to structure small experiments to improve the curriculum and pedagogy. Much effort goes into building markets as a tool for economic and social development; those pursuing or promoting market building, however, often overlook that in too many places social exclusion and poverty prevent many, especially women, from participating in and accessing markets.
Building on data from rural Bangladesh and analyzing the work of a prominent intermediary organization, we uncover institutional voids as the source of market exclusion and identify two sets of activities—redefining market architecture and legitimating new actors—as critical for building inclusive markets. We expose voids as analytical spaces and illustrate how they result from conflict and contradiction among institutional bits and pieces from local political, community, and religious spheres.
Our findings put forward a perspective on market building that highlights the on-the-ground dynamics and attends to the institutions at play, to their consequences, and to a more diverse set of inhabitants of institutions. Disaster events threaten the lives, economies, and wellbeing of those they impact. FAQ Policy. About this book Climate change and its implications for consumers and policymakers, have been discussed extensively.
Show all. Literature review Pages Renner, Adrian. Definition of terms Pages Renner, Adrian. Research questions, model setup and hypothesis development Pages Renner, Adrian. Research methodology Pages Renner, Adrian. Description of data set Pages Renner, Adrian.
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