Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16)


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Works (37)

Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, Luke the Theologian: Fifty-five Years of Research Waco: Baylor University Press, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, Conzelmann, Hans. The Theology of St. Philadelphia: Fortress, []. Edited by Geoffrey Buswell. Translation of Die Mitte Der Zeit. Danker, F. Philadelphia: Fortress, Denaux, Adelbert. Edited by C. Leuven: Leuven University Press, Ellis, E. The Gospel of Luke.

RICHARD ONDENG' LIBRARY catalog › Details for: The Prophethood of all believers :

The New Century Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, Farmer, W. Luke the Theologian: Aspects of His Teaching. London: Geoffrey Chapman, Fitzmyer, Joseph A. The Anchor Bible New York: Doubleday, The Anchor Bible 28A. Flender, Helmut. Luke Theologian of Redemptive History.

Translated by Reginald H. London: SPCK, Friedrichsen, Timothy. Goulder, Michael. Luke, A New Paradigm. Green, Joel B. Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers Atlanta: Scholars Press, The Theology of the Gospel of Luke. New Testament Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, New International Commentary on the New Testament.

Houlden, J. Jervell, Jacob. Edited by Sigfred Pedersen. All citations taken from this correspondence unless noted oth- erwise. Roger Stronstad: Academic and Pentecostal 37 long friends. With bold flare, Pinnock announces: Watch out you evangelicals — the young Pentecostal scholars are coming! We cannot consider Pentecostalism to be an aberration born of experiential excesses but a 20th century revival of New Testament theology and religion.

It has not only restored joy and power to the church but a clearer reading of the Bible as well. Published in , this work went through nu- merous printings and launched not only his career but also lured Pentecostals into the world of critical scholarship. Dunn typifies the larger Evangelical community and be- 8 Stronstad searched for a publisher for almost ten years. Subsequent generations of preach- ers and teachers within classical Pentecostalism then worked hard to preserve teachings for contemporary application.

They wrote myriad pamphlets and devotionals for congregants and textbooks for students preparing for ministry. They demonstrated little interest in the schol- arly battles that mark the twentieth century. Since we are also celebrating the contributions of Ronald Kydd, I share a vivid memory from my days as his student at Central Pente- costal College in Saskatoon now Horizon College. Dorset, U. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Pentecostal Studies. Fresno, Calif. Van Kleek, eds.

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Clayburn, B. Stronstad finds continuity between the majority of verbs used by Luke and Greek translators of the Hebrew Scriptures to describe the charismatic activity of the Spirit. Moreover, this ter- minology stands in contrast to distinctive Pauline and Johannine ter- minology. Early in Charismatic Theology, Stronstad builds upon hermeneutical develop- ments that take shape in the s. Stronstad leans heavily on I. Thus, Luke writes not only to narrate the events relating to the origin of Christianity, but also to instruct Theophilus and every other reader who will subsequently make up his audience.

Luke complements the historical dimension with a theo- logical one, a narrative designed to offer instruction on matters such as christology, soteriology, missiology, and most important for Pentecostals, pneumatology. The enduring influence of Charis- matic Theology demonstrates the pioneering nature of his work. Its meaning extends beyond the prayer room and the worship service to a world which needs to hear a prophetic voice in concert with the demonstration of the power of the Spirit. Though many Pentecostal leaders remain com- mitted to instruction of pneumatological distinctives, they struggle to find valuable resources.

I propose that this work provides an unparalleled resource. Twenty-five years in print for a youthful movement may not be monumental for a Roman Catholic or a Lu- theran, but surely warrants attention in the Pentecostal tradition. I use this work not only in undergraduate and Spirit enables various leaders with military prowess Othniel [], Gideon []; Jephthah []; and Samson [, 19; ]. When many passionate students of the Scripture struggle to find quality resources on the Holy Spirit, this work remains accessible not only for students and scholars but a wide variety of searching readers; pas- tors, teachers, and parishioners alike find this work enli- vening and refreshing.

Those familiar with Pentecostal teaching on the Spirit-filled life find analysis for fresh re- flection and exploration, while those unfamiliar receive a gentle yet challenging exhortation to life in the Spirit.


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Given Pentecostal proclamation that the charismatic and vocational work of the Spirit remains normative for all Christians, I cannot commend a better biblical and theo- logical resource. Is it a Pentecostal classic? Moses finds the Israelites difficult to lead and distributes his leadership among seventy Israelite elders. With this transfer of lead- ership, God also provides critical transfer of the Spirit. Following the prophecy of two elders, Moses responds by expressing his earnest desire that Israel be not only a kingdom of priests, but, more ideally, one of prophets.

Peter not only experiences the Spirit of prophecy but proclaims the universal availability of the Spirit. He offers inspired wit- ness not only in Jerusalem, but Samaria and throughout Judea, particularly the western communities of Lydda and Joppa. Peter and Paul, the two charismatic apostles, minister in concert with two charismatic deacons, Stephen and Philip. Under the direction of the Spirit, Stephen first serves the people of God by bringing unity to a divided community and then speaks with a wisdom that con- founds opponents of the gospel.

Like Stephen, Philip not only functions as a charismatic deacon, but gives inspired witness in Samaria and Ethiopia. The third pair consists of Barnabas and Agabus. Alongside Paul, Barnabas embarks on a successful evangelistic and teaching ministry. Fi- nally, Agabus enters the story as an agent of social justice. Through the Spirit, Agabus predicts a great famine and in so doing launches a famine relief project by way of disci- ples of Antioch. On the other hand, Stronstad celebrates the arrival of the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements as recovery of a prophetic heritage.

But he does not refrain from criticism of fellow Pentecostals. Once again, Stronstad laments overzealous trivialization and commercialization of self-seeking experience, emo- tion, and private blessing in contrast to the prophetic wit- ness and service envisioned by Luke. The decision of the editors to combine the Third Gospel and Acts marks the beginning a two-volume literary approach.

Around the same time, see the influential literary analyses by Robert C. Preface Preface 2. The Origins of the Spirit- 2. The Ministry of the Spirit- 3. Travel Narrative: The Jour- 5. Jesus: Rejected Prophet-King ——— 6. The Trial, Death, and Resur- 6. Given Pentecostal interest in the continuity between the Spirit-led Jesus and Spirit-empowered com- munity, the vision of Stronstad and Arrington should pave the way for future scholars and publishers to consider the need for thoroughgoing Luke-Acts commentaries.

On the other hand, though Pentecostals currently reap the divi- dends of literary criticism, they must also engage the pull of canonical analysis. In other words, how might Stron- stad and others address the recontextualized function of Luke and Acts via canonical separation? What might Pen- tecostals glean from the canonical order of the biblical text? Its Afrocentric ideology was largely a reaction against Jamaica's then-dominant British colonial culture. It was influenced by both Ethiopianism and the Back-to-Africa movement promoted by black nationalist figures like Marcus Garvey.

The movement developed after several Christian clergymen, most notably Leonard Howell , proclaimed that the crowning of Haile Selassie as Emperor of Ethiopia in fulfilled a Biblical prophecy. By the s, Rastafari's counter-cultural stance had brought the movement into conflict with wider Jamaican society, including violent clashes with law enforcement. In the s and s it gained increased respectability within Jamaica and greater visibility abroad through the popularity of Rasta-inspired reggae musicians like Bob Marley.

Enthusiasm for Rastafari declined in the s, following the deaths of Haile Selassie and Marley.

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The Rasta movement is organised on a largely cellular basis. There are several denominations, or " Mansions of Rastafari ", the most prominent of which are the Nyahbinghi , Bobo Ashanti , Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church , and the Twelve Tribes of Israel , each of which offers different interpretations of Rasta belief. There are an estimated , to 1 million Rastas across the world; the largest population is in Jamaica although communities can be found in most of the world's major population centres.

Samaritanism is based on some of the same books used as the basis of Judaism but differs from the latter. Samaritan religious works include the Samaritan version of the Torah , the Memar Markah, the Samaritan liturgy, and Samaritan law codes and biblical commentaries. Many [ who? Shabakism is the name given to the beliefs and practices of the Shabak people of Kurdistan region and around Mosul in Iraq. A majority of Shabaks regard themselves as Shia, and a minority identify as Sunnis. These include features from Christianity including confession , and the consumption of alcohol , and the fact that Shabaks often go on pilgrimage to Yazidi shrines.

Shabakism combines elements of Sufism with the uniquely Shabak interpretation of "divine reality. Shabaks comprehend divine reality through the mediation of the "Pir" or spiritual guide, who also performs Shabak rituals. The term was introduced by Kurdish scholar Mehrdad Izady to represent what he considers the "original" religion of the Kurds [72] as the primary inhabitants of the Zagros Mountains , until their increasing Islamization in the course of the 10th century.

Well established, however, are the "striking" and "unmistakable" similarities between the Yazidis and the Yaresan or Ahl-e Haqq , [75] some of which can be traced back to elements of an ancient faith that was probably dominant among Western Iranians [76] and likened to practices of pre-Zoroastrian Mithraic religion. The civilizations that developed in Mesopotamia influenced some religious texts, particularly the Hebrew Bible and the Book of Genesis. Abraham is said to have originated in Mesopotamia.

Judaism regards itself as the religion of the descendants of Jacob, [n 1] a grandson of Abraham. It has a strictly unitary view of God, and the central holy book for almost all branches is the Masoretic Text as elucidated in the Oral Torah. In the 19th century and 20th centuries Judaism developed a small number of branches, of which the most significant are Orthodox , Conservative , and Reform.

The Prophethood of All Believers (Journal For The Study Of The Old Testament Supplement Series)

Christianity began as a sect of Judaism [n 2] in the Mediterranean Basin [n 3] of the first century CE and evolved into a separate religion —Christianity—with distinctive beliefs and practices. Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, considered by almost all denominations to be God the Son , one person of the Trinity. See God in Christianity. Over many centuries, Christianity divided into three main branches Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant , dozens of significant denominations , and hundreds of smaller ones.

Islam arose in the Arabian Peninsula [n 5] in the 7th century CE with a strictly unitary view of God. The Islamic faith considers all prophets and messengers from Adam through the final messenger Muhammad to carry the same Islamic monotheistic principles. Soon after its founding, Islam split into two main branches Sunni and Shia Islam , each of which now has a number of denominations. A vast majority of adherents are unified under a single denomination. All Abrahamic religions accept the tradition that God revealed himself to the patriarch Abraham.

In the three main Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity and Islam , the individual, God, and the universe are highly separate from each other. The Abrahamic religions believe in a judging, paternal, fully external god to which the individual and nature are subordinate. One seeks salvation or transcendence not by contemplating the natural world or via philosophical speculation, but by seeking to please God such as obedience with God's wishes or his law and see divine revelation as outside of self, nature, and custom.

All Abrahamic religions claim to be monotheistic, worshiping an exclusive God, although one known by different names. Since the conception of a divine Trinity is not amenable to tawhid , the Islamic doctrine of monotheism, Islam regards Christianity as variously polytheistic. However, the worship of Jesus, or the ascribing of partners to God known as shirk in Islam and as shituf in Judaism , is typically viewed as the heresy of idolatry by Islam and Judaism. Judaism and Islam see the incarnation of God into human form as a heresy.

All the Abrahamic religions affirm one eternal God who created the universe, who rules history, who sends prophetic and angelic messengers and who reveals the divine will through inspired revelation. They also affirm that obedience to this creator deity is to be lived out historically and that one day God will unilaterally intervene in human history at the Last Judgment. All Abrahamic religions believe that God guides humanity through revelation to prophets, and each religion recognizes that God revealed teachings up to and including those in their own scripture.

An ethical orientation: all these religions speak of a choice between good and evil, which is associated with obedience or disobedience to a single God and to Divine Law. An eschatological world view of history and destiny, beginning with the creation of the world and the concept that God works through history, and ending with a resurrection of the dead and final judgment and world to come. Jerusalem is considered Judaism's holiest city. Jews thrice daily pray in its direction, including in their prayers pleas for the restoration and the rebuilding of the Holy Temple the Third Temple on mount Moriah, close the Passover service with the wistful statement "Next year in built Jerusalem," and recall the city in the blessing at the end of each meal.

It has been majority Jewish since about and continues through today.

Jerusalem was an early center of Christianity. There has been a continuous Christian presence there since. Kenan, Jr. The six parts to Jesus' trial—three stages in a religious court and three stages before a Roman court—were all held in Jerusalem. His crucifixion at Golgotha , his burial nearby traditionally the Church of the Holy Sepulchre , and his resurrection and ascension and prophecy to return all are said to have occurred or will occur there. Jerusalem became holy to Muslims, third after Mecca and Medina. The Al-Aqsa Mosque , which translates to "farthest mosque" in sura Al-Isra in the Quran and its surroundings are addressed in the Quran as "the holy land".

Muslim tradition as recorded in the ahadith identifies al-Aqsa with a mosque in Jerusalem. The first Muslims did not pray toward Kaaba , but toward Jerusalem this was the qibla for 13 years : the qibla was switched to Kaaba later on to fulfill the order of Allah of praying in the direction of Kaaba Quran, Al-Baqarah — Even though members of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam do not all claim Abraham as an ancestor, some members of these religions have tried to claim him as exclusively theirs.

For Jews , Abraham is the founding patriarch of the children of Israel. God promised Abraham: "I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you. Similarly, converts, who join the covenant, are all identified as sons and daughters of Abraham. According to Jewish tradition, Abraham was the first post- Flood prophet to reject idolatry through rational analysis, although Shem and Eber carried on the tradition from Noah.

Christians view Abraham as an important exemplar of faith , and a spiritual, as well as physical, ancestor of Jesus. In Christian belief, Abraham is a role model of faith, [Heb. Christian commentators have a tendency to interpret God's promises to Abraham as applying to Christianity subsequent to, and sometimes rather than as in supersessionism , being applied to Judaism, whose adherents rejected Jesus.

They argue this on the basis that just as Abraham as a Gentile before he was circumcised "believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness" [Gen. This is most fully developed in Paul's theology where all who believe in God are spiritual descendants of Abraham. Also, the same as Judaism, Islam believes that Abraham rejected idolatry through logical reasoning. Abraham is also recalled in certain details of the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The Abrahamic God is conceived of as eternal , omnipotent , omniscient and as the creator of the universe.

God is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence and omnipresence. Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God is also transcendent , but at the same time personal and involved, listening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures.

In Jewish theology , God is strictly monotheistic. God is an absolute one, indivisible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Jewish tradition teaches that the true aspect of God is incomprehensible and unknowable and that it is only God's revealed aspect that brought the universe into existence, and interacts with mankind and the world. It also represents God's compassion towards the world. In Jewish tradition another name of God is Elohim , relating to the interaction between God and the universe, God as manifest in the physical world, it designates the justice of God, and means "the One who is the totality of powers, forces and causes in the universe".

In Christian theology , God is the eternal being who created and preserves the world. Christians believe God to be both transcendent and immanent involved in the world. Around the year , Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trinity which clearly affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the later definitive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of The theology of the attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things".

Islamic belief in God is distinct from Christianity in that God has no progeny. He does not beget nor was he begotten. Nor is there to Him any equivalent". All these religions rely on a body of scriptures, some of which are considered to be the word of God—hence sacred and unquestionable—and some the work of religious men, revered mainly by tradition and to the extent that they are considered to have been divinely inspired, if not dictated, by the divine being. These are complemented by and supplemented with various originally oral traditions: Midrash , the Mishnah , the Talmud and collected rabbinical writings.

The Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular is considered holy, down to the last letter: transcribing is done with painstaking care. Latin Bibles originally contained 73 books; however, 7 books, collectively called the Apocrypha or Deuterocanon depending on one's opinion of them, were removed by Martin Luther due to a lack of original Hebrew sources, and now vary on their inclusion between denominations.

Greek Bibles contain additional materials. The New Testament comprises four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus the Four Gospels , as well as several other writings the epistles and the Book of Revelation. They are usually considered to be divinely inspired , and together comprise the Christian Bible. The vast majority of Christian faiths including Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and most forms of Protestantism recognize that the Gospels were passed on by oral tradition, and were not set to paper until decades after the resurrection of Jesus and that the extant versions are copies of those originals.

The version of the Bible considered to be most valid in the sense of best conveying the true meaning of the word of God has varied considerably: the Greek Septuagint , the Syriac Peshitta , the Latin Vulgate , the English King James Version and the Russian Synodal Bible have been authoritative to different communities at different times. The sacred scriptures of the Christian Bible are complemented by a large body of writings by individual Christians and councils of Christian leaders see canon law.

Some Christian churches and denominations consider certain additional writings to be binding; other Christian groups consider only the Bible to be binding sola scriptura. Islam's holiest book is the Quran, comprising Suras "chapters of the Qur'an". However, Muslims also believe in the religious texts of Judaism and Christianity in their original forms, albeit not the current versions. According to the Quran and mainstream Muslim belief , the verses of the Quran were revealed by God through the Archangel Jibrail to Muhammad on separate occasions.

These revelations were written down and also memorized by hundreds of companions of Muhammad. These multiple sources were collected into one official copy. After the death of Mohammed, Quran was copied on several copies and Caliph Uthman provided these copies to different cities of Islamic Empire. The Quran mentions and reveres several of the Israelite prophets, including Moses and Jesus , among others see also: Prophets of Islam.

The stories of these prophets are very similar to those in the Bible. However, the detailed precepts of the Tanakh and the New Testament are not adopted outright; they are replaced by the new commandments accepted as revealed directly by God through Gabriel to Muhammad and codified in the Quran. Like the Jews with the Torah, Muslims consider the original Arabic text of the Quran as uncorrupted and holy to the last letter, and any translations are considered to be interpretations of the meaning of the Quran, as only the original Arabic text is considered to be the divine scripture.

Like the Rabbinic Oral Law to the Hebrew Bible, the Quran is complemented by the Hadith , a set of books by later authors recording the sayings of the prophet Muhammad. The Hadith interpret and elaborate Qur'anic precepts. Islamic scholars have categorized each Hadith at one of the following levels of authenticity or isnad : genuine sahih , fair hasan or weak da'if. By the 9th century, six major Hadith collections were accepted as reliable to Sunni Muslims.

Shia Muslims, however, refer to other authenticated hadiths instead. The Hadith and the life story of Muhammad sira form the Sunnah , an authoritative supplement to the Quran. The Quran contains repeated references to the "religion of Abraham" see Suras ,; ; ,; ; ; In the Quran, this expression refers specifically to Islam; sometimes in contrast to Christianity and Judaism, as in Sura , for example: 'They say: "Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided to salvation.

I would rather the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with God. In the major Abrahamic religions, there exists the expectation of an individual who will herald the time of the end or bring about the Kingdom of God on Earth; in other words, the Messianic prophecy. Judaism awaits the coming of the Jewish Messiah ; the Jewish concept of Messiah differs from the Christian concept in several significant ways, despite the same term being applied to both. The Jewish Messiah is not seen as a "god", but as a mortal man who by his holiness is worthy of that description.

His appearance is not the end of history, rather it signals the coming of the world to come. Christianity awaits the Second Coming of Christ, though Full Preterists believe this has already happened. Islam awaits both the second coming of Jesus to complete his life and die and the coming of Mahdi Sunnis in his first incarnation, Shia as the return of Muhammad al-Mahdi.

Most Abrahamic religions agree that a human being comprises the body, which dies, and the soul , which is capable of remaining alive beyond human death and carries the person's essence, and that God will judge each person's life accordingly after death. The importance of this and the focus on it, as well as the precise criteria and end result, differ between religions. Judaism's views on the afterlife "the Next World" are quite diverse. This can be attributed to the fact that although there clearly are traditions in the Hebrew Bible of an afterlife see Naboth and the Witch of Endor , Judaism focuses on this life and how to lead a holy life to please God, rather than future reward.

Christians have more diverse and definite teachings on the end times and what constitutes afterlife. Most Christian approaches either include different abodes for the dead Heaven , Hell , Limbo , Purgatory or universal reconciliation because all souls are made in the image of God. A small minority teach annihilationism , the doctrine that those persons who are not reconciled to God simply cease to exist.

Those who obey God and submit to God will be rewarded with their own place in Paradise. While sinners are punished with fire, there are also many other forms of punishment described, depending on the sin committed; Hell is divided into numerous levels. Those who worship and remember God are promised eternal abode in a physical and spiritual Paradise. Heaven is divided into eight levels , with the highest level of Paradise being the reward of those who have been most virtuous, the prophets, and those killed while fighting for Allah martyrs.

Upon repentance to God, many sins can be forgiven, on the condition they are not repeated, as God is supremely merciful. Additionally, those who believe in God, but have led sinful lives, may be punished for a time, and then eventually released into Paradise. If anyone dies in a state of Shirk i. Once a person is admitted to Paradise, this person will abide there for eternity.

Worship, ceremonies and religion-related customs differ substantially among the Abrahamic religions. Among the few similarities are a seven-day cycle in which one day is nominally reserved for worship, prayer or other religious activities— Shabbat , Sabbath , or jumu'ah ; this custom is related to the biblical story of Genesis, where God created the universe in six days and rested in the seventh. Orthodox Judaism practice is guided by the interpretation of the Torah and the Talmud. Before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem , Jewish priests offered sacrifices there two times daily; since then, the practice has been replaced, until the Temple is rebuilt, by Jewish men being required to pray three times daily, including the chanting of the Torah , and facing in the direction of Jerusalem 's Temple Mount.

Other practices include circumcision , dietary laws , Shabbat , Passover , Torah study , Tefillin , purity and others. Conservative Judaism , Reform Judaism and the Reconstructionist movement all move away, in different degrees, from the strict tradition of the law. Jewish women's prayer obligations vary by denomination ; in contemporary Orthodox practice, women do not read from the Torah and are only required to say certain parts of these daily services.

All versions of Judaism share a common, specialized calendar, containing many festivals. The calendar is lunisolar, with lunar months and a solar year an extra month is added every second or third year to allow the shorter lunar year to "catch up" to the solar year.

All streams observe the same festivals, but some emphasize them differently. As is usual with its extensive law system, the Orthodox have the most complex manner of observing the festivals, while the Reform pay more attention to the simple symbolism of each one. Christian worship varies from denomination to denomination.

Individual prayer is usually not ritualised, while group prayer may be ritual or non-ritual according to the occasion. During church services, some form of liturgy is frequently followed. Rituals are performed during sacraments , which also vary from denomination to denomination and usually include Baptism and Communion , and may also include Confirmation , Confession , Last Rites and Holy Orders. Catholic worship practice is governed by the Roman Missal and other documents. Individuals, churches and denominations place different emphasis on ritual—some denominations consider most ritual activity optional, see Adiaphora , particularly since the Protestant Reformation.

The first pillar is the belief in the oneness of Allah, and in Muhammad as his final and most perfect prophet. The second is to pray five times daily salat towards the direction qibla of the Kaaba in Mecca. The third pillar is almsgiving Zakah , a portion of one's wealth given to the poor or to other specified causes, which means the giving of a specific share of one's wealth and savings to persons or causes, as is commanded in the Quran and elucidated as to specific percentages for different kinds of income and wealth in the hadith.

The normal share to be paid is two and a half percent of one's earnings: this increases if labour was not required, and increases further if only capital or possessions alone were required i. Fasting sawm during the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar, Ramadan , is the fourth pillar of Islam, to which all Muslims after the age of puberty in good health as judged by a Muslim doctor to be able fast without incurring grave danger to health: even in seemingly obvious situations, a "competent and upright Muslim physician" is required to agree , that are not menstruating are bound to observe—missed days of the fast for any reason must be made up, unless there be a permanent illness, such as diabetes, that prevents a person from ever fasting.

In such a case, restitution must be made by feeding one poor person for each day missed. Finally, Muslims are also required, if physically able, to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one's life: it is strongly recommended to do it as often as possible, preferably once a year. Only individuals whose financial position and health are severely insufficient are exempt from making Hajj e.

During this pilgrimage, the Muslims spend three to seven days in worship, performing several strictly defined rituals, most notably circumambulating the Kaaba among millions of other Muslims and the " stoning of the devil " at Mina. At the end of the Hajj , the heads of men are shaved, sheep and other halal animals, notably camels , are slaughtered as a ritual sacrifice by bleeding out at the neck according to a strictly prescribed ritual slaughter method similar to the Jewish kashrut , to commemorate the moment when, according to Islamic tradition, Allah replaced Abraham's son Ishmael contrasted with the Judaeo-Christian tradition that Isaac was the intended sacrifice with a sheep, thereby preventing human sacrifice.

The meat from these animals is then distributed locally to needy Muslims, neighbours and relatives. Finally, the hajji puts off ihram and the hajj is complete. Judaism commands that males be circumcised when they are 8 days old, as does the Sunnah in Islam. Western Christianity replaced the custom of male circumcision with the ritual of baptism [] a ceremony which varies according to the doctrine of the denomination, but it generally includes immersion , aspersion , or anointment with water.

The Council of Florence in the 15th century [] prohibited it. Paragraph of the Catholic Catechism calls non-medical amputation or mutilation immoral. Catholic scholars make various arguments in support of the idea that this policy is not in contradiction with the previous edicts.


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The Catholic Church currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision, [] and in it banned the practice of religious circumcision in the 11th Council of Florence. Many countries with majorities of Christian adherents have low circumcision rates, while both religious and non-religious circumcision is common in many predominantly Christian countries such as the United States , [] and the Philippines , Australia , [] and Canada , Cameroon , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Ethiopia , Equatorial Guinea , Ghana , Nigeria , and Kenya , and many other African Christian countries, [] [] Circumcision is near universal in the Christian countries of Oceania.

See also aposthia. Male circumcision is among the rites of Islam and is part of the fitrah , or the innate disposition and natural character and instinct of the human creation. Judaism and Islam have strict dietary laws , with permitted food known as kosher in Judaism, and halal in Islam. These two religions prohibit the consumption of pork ; Islam prohibits the consumption of alcoholic beverages of any kind. Halal restrictions can be seen as a modification of the kashrut dietary laws, so many kosher foods are considered halal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam prescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God.

Hence, in many places, Muslims used to consume kosher food. However, some foods not considered kosher are considered halal in Islam. With rare exceptions, Christians do not consider the Old Testament's strict food laws as relevant for today's church; see also Biblical law in Christianity. Most Protestants have no set food laws, but there are minority exceptions. The Roman Catholic Church believes in observing abstinence and penance.

For example, all Fridays through the year and the time of Lent are penitential days. Therefore, they do not eat pork, shellfish, or other foods considered unclean under the Old Covenant. The "Fundamental Beliefs" of the SDA state that their members "are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures". In the Christian Bible , the consumption of strangled animals and of blood was forbidden by Apostolic Decree [Acts —21] and are still forbidden in the Greek Orthodox Church, according to German theologian Karl Josef von Hefele , who, in his Commentary on Canon II of the Second Ecumenical Council held in the 4th century at Gangra, notes: "We further see that, at the time of the Synod of Gangra , the rule of the Apostolic Synod [the Council of Jerusalem of Acts 15] with regard to blood and things strangled was still in force.

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With the Greeks , indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show. Jehovah's Witnesses abstain from eating blood and from blood transfusions based on Acts — The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints prohibits the consumption of alcohol, coffee, and non-herbal tea. While there is not a set of prohibited food, the church encourages members to refrain from eating excessive amounts of red meat.

Sabbath in the Bible is a weekly day of rest and time of worship. It is observed differently in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam and informs a similar occasion in several other Abrahamic faiths. Though many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition.

Judaism accepts converts, but has had no explicit missionaries since the end of the Second Temple era. Judaism states that non-Jews can achieve righteousness by following Noahide Laws , a set of moral imperatives that, according to the Talmud , were given by God [] as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah "—that is, all of humanity. Moses Maimonides , one of the major Jewish teachers, commented: "Quoting from our sages, the righteous people from other nations have a place in the world to come if they have acquired what they should learn about the Creator".

Because the commandments applicable to the Jews are much more detailed and onerous than Noahide laws, Jewish scholars have traditionally maintained that it is better to be a good non-Jew than a bad Jew, thus discouraging conversion. In the U. Christianity encourages evangelism. Many Christian organizations, especially Protestant churches, send missionaries to non-Christian communities throughout the world.

See also Great Commission. Forced conversions to Catholicism have been alleged at various points throughout history. Forced conversions to Protestantism may have occurred as well, notably during the Reformation , especially in England and Ireland see recusancy and Popish plot. Forced conversions are condemned as sinful by major denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, which officially states that forced conversions pollute the Christian religion and offend human dignity, so that past or present offences are regarded as a scandal a cause of unbelief.

According to Pope Paul VI , "It is one of the major tenets of Catholic doctrine that man's response to God in faith must be free: no one, therefore, is to be forced to embrace the Christian faith against his own will. Dawah is an important Islamic concept which denotes the preaching of Islam. Da'wah activities can take many forms. Some pursue Islamic studies specifically to perform Da'wah. Mosques and other Islamic centers sometimes spread Da'wah actively, similar to evangelical churches.

Others consider being open to the public and answering questions to be Da'wah. Recalling Muslims to the faith and expanding their knowledge can also be considered Da'wah. This section reports on writings and talks which describe or advocate dialogue between the Abrahamic religions.

He describes the situation in this way: "A Muslim says, 'I am superior to all. Amir Hussain In , a book called Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism contains a chapter by Amir Hussain on "Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue" which he shows how interfaith dialogue has been an integral part of Islam from its beginning. From his "first revelation" for the rest of his life, Muhammad was "engaged in interfaith dialogue.

Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16) Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16)
Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16) Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16)
Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16) Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16)
Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16) Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16)
Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16) Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16)
Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16) Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16)
Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16) Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16)
Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16) Prophethood of All Believers (Journal of Pentecostal Theology Suppleme Series, 16)

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