# Vector and Geometric Calculus ## 100-level Mathematics Revision Exercises

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Poseidon's Steed. Poseidon's Steed - Used Very Good. Why Is Sex Fun? The Strange Order of Things. From this follows that the directional derivative is the inner product of its direction by the geometric derivative. All needs to be observed is that the direction can be written , so that:.

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For this reason, is often noted. The standard order of operations for the geometric derivative is that it acts only on the function closest to its immediate right. Given two functions F and G , then for example we have.

Geometric Calculus 2

Although the partial derivative exhibits a product rule , the geometric derivative only partially inherits this property. Consider two functions F and G :. Since the geometric product is not commutative with in general, we cannot proceed further without new notation. A solution is to adopt the overdot notation , in which the scope of a geometric derivative with an overdot is the multivector-valued function sharing the same overdot.

In this case, if we define. Let F be an r -grade multivector. Then we can define an additional pair of operators, the interior and exterior derivatives,. In particular, if F is grade 1 vector-valued function , then we can write. Note, however, that these two operators are considerably weaker than the geometric derivative counterpart for several reasons.

Neither the interior derivative operator nor the exterior derivative operator is invertible.

## Vector and Geometric Calculus

Let be a set of basis vectors that span an n -dimensional vector space. From geometric algebra, we interpret the pseudoscalar to be the signed volume of the n - parallelotope subtended by these basis vectors. If the basis vectors are orthonormal , then this is the unit pseudoscalar.

More generally, we may restrict ourselves to a subset of k of the basis vectors, where , to treat the length, area, or other general k -volume of a subspace in the overall n -dimensional vector space. We denote these selected basis vectors by. A general k -volume of the k -parallelotope subtended by these basis vectors is the grade k multivector. Even more generally, we may consider a new set of vectors proportional to the k basis vectors, where each of the is a component that scales one of the basis vectors.

We are free to choose components as infinitesimally small as we wish as long as they remain nonzero. Since the outer product of these terms can be interpreted as a k -volume, a natural way to define a measure is. The measure is therefore always proportional to the unit pseudoscalar of a k -dimensional subspace of the vector space. Compare the Riemannian volume form in the theory of differential forms. The integral is taken with respect to this measure:. Vectors in the Plane Vectors are needed in order to describe a plane and can give the direction of all dimensions in one vector equation. Learning Objectives Calculate the directions of the normal vector and the directional vector of a reference point. Key Takeaways Key Points In order to adequately describe a plane, you need more than a point—you need a normal vector. The normal vector is perpendicular to the directional vector of the reference point. Key Terms vector : a directed quantity, one with both magnitude and direction; the signed difference between two points normal : a line or vector that is perpendicular to another line, surface, or plane.

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Vectors in Three Dimensions A Euclidean vector is a geometric object that has magnitude i. Learning Objectives Practice representing an Euclidean vector in the Cartesian coordinate system. Key Takeaways Key Points Vectors play an important role in physics. Vectors can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra. Key Terms tensor : a multidimensional array satisfying a certain mathematical transformation pseudovector : a quantity that transforms like a vector under a proper rotation but gains an additional change of sign under an improper rotation.

The Dot Product The dot product takes two vectors of the same dimension and returns a single value. Learning Objectives Formulate properties of the dot product, including the algebraic and geometric methods used to calculate it. Key Takeaways Key Points The dot product can be found algebraically or geometrically. The algebraic method employs the sum of the products of corresponding parameters, and the geometric method uses the product of the magnitudes of the vectors and the cosine of the angle between them.

The dot product is a commutative property. The dot product is a distributive property. Key Terms commutative : such that the order in which the operands are taken does not affect their image under the operation cross product : also called a vector product; results in a vector which is perpendicular to both of the vectors being multiplied and therefore normal to the plane containing them.

The Cross Product The cross product of two vectors is a vector which is perpendicular to both of the original vectors. Learning Objectives Calculate the cross product of two vectors. Key Takeaways Key Points Since the cross product is perpendicular to both original vectors, it is also normal to the plane of the original vectors. If the two original vectors are parallel to each other, the cross product is zero.

The cross product can be found both algebraically and geometrically. Key Terms parallelogram : a convex quadrilateral in which each pair of opposite edges is parallel and of equal length perpendicular : at or forming a right angle to. Equations of Lines and Planes A line is a vector which connects two points on a plane and the direction and magnitude of a line determine the plane on which it lies. Learning Objectives Explain the relationship between the lines and three dimensional geometric objects.

Key Takeaways Key Points The slope of the line, and the plane it lies on, is the angle of inclination of that line. A line is a two dimensional representation of a three dimensional geometric object, a plane. Learning Objectives Define a quadratic surface. Key Takeaways Key Points A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given line segment, the axis of the cylinder. A cylinder can be seen as a polyhedral limiting case of an n-gonal prism where n approaches infinity.

## Vector and geometric calculus

Cylinders, spheres, ellipsoids, etc. Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates Cylindrical and spherical coordinates are useful when describing objects or phenomena with specific symmetries. Learning Objectives Distinguish between cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems. Cylindrical coordinates are useful in connection with objects and phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis. Vector and Geometric Calculus Vector and Geometric Calculus Vector and Geometric Calculus Vector and Geometric Calculus Vector and Geometric Calculus Vector and Geometric Calculus Vector and Geometric Calculus Vector and Geometric Calculus

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