Zarathushtra, Philo, the Achaemenids and Israel


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Notice Gabriel's, "the man's voice," of viii. So Vohu- manah was really "mercy" see ix. In ix. There was also a "curse" almost personified in Avesta. See again "all the Righteousness of God," ix.


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XXXII, ii. XIX, i, where Ahura himself takes part. XLIII; see x. In xi. I do not know what to suggest with regard to the other two angels of Daniel xii. The Angel in Rev. Arta-i-Viraf, however, was "in the spirit" much after the fashion of St. John, though in his case Arta-i-Viraf 's this took place with the assistance of a drug. There is also a prominent book called the "Spirit of Wisdom. The Son of Man again, as in Daniel, recalls Vohuman who 15 represented "man.

In Rev. There were "two first spirits" : see also the word ap a ourvyam, "having no first"; that is to "Meaning "at will," "with complete sway. The description of the seven stars as the "seven angels of the seven churches Rev. The idea and the words as already stated, were taken over from the seven angels before "the throne. The "tree of life" ii. He who was dead and is alive again" Rev. The intervention of the Satanic opposition ii.

Periods of trial ii. Satan's throne ii. We are also reminded of the top of Arezura, V. Idol- worship 14 is one of ii. In ii. The hidden manna, Rev. And we notice once again that the fire was "God's son," the expression often occurring. Here we have as so often no immediate literary connection, but the two ideas were de- termined by the same psychological moment.

Vohumanah distinctly recalls the"beginning of the creation of God" iii. See the "Amen" again for Asha in a most solemn and heart-touching sense from interior parallel de- velopment. The four and twenty elders on thrones iv. Vohu Manah seems to sit down, if not. XIX, , yet upon a throne in His near vicinity recall where the Son of Man sits upon the throne ; of His Glory Vohu Manah also representing the religious man in Avesta, as to which see below the Deity also ; presumably presided.

So the seven lamps of fire, 4, 5 have been already mentioned as a manifestation of the angel Atar Adar. In iv. The especial homage to God as "the Creator" iv. The "white horse" of vi. The angel of the Abyss ix. Recall Ezek. The "beast coming up out of the abyss," Rev. It would seem to be profane to mention the "three days" of the Gospels. Passing over much interesting and apposite detail we have in Rev. This "Reign of God" is again pre-eminently Khshathra who was Ahura's attri- bute: "the temple of God which is in heaven" xi. The dragon of seven heads is, of course, the Azhi Dahaka of Avesta, Ahi of the Veda, which both the had six heads, the six being changed to seven in Revela- tion on account of the dominant influence of that number with possible reference to the Seven Hills of Rome.

Like the Vedic Ahi, he kept off the rain. There was also "an eagle" in the Avesta in the Yasht xii. The "worship of the dragon" xiii. The "angel with the eternal Gospel" xiv. In xiv. In xv. At xvi. In xvi. And let me also say here in passing that 20 Notice in passing what I must refer to later on, which is the constant rationalism of the Avesta- Vedic concepts as against the Babylonian-Israelitish. One of the most marvelous of literary circumstances is that all the gods, or most of them, have meaning in Avesta, as in Veda and for the most part ab- stract meaning.

Notice again the "Lord of Lords and King of Kings" xvii. The "angel having greatauthority" xviii. The angel "with, the great mill-stone" recalls the mythical Zor- oaster who enemy with an enormous piece of assaults the rock, "large as a cottage," so some render. The Amen xix. The "marriage of the Lamb" xix. In xix. The "white horse" once more immediately suggests again the "white steed" of the Yasht to victory see also the four-span white ; horses of Sraosha. The "faithful and true" one recalls the old Persian ideal see Herodotus it had its root in Asha. The name upon his thigh is again our Aryan "King of Kings" of the Inscriptions, here fitting in especially because not applied to the Supreme Deity, as indeed also once in Daniel where as in the Persian Inscription it refers to a human potentate.

In xix 17, we have the Hvare Khsh a - eta as the shining sun once more ; again Ezekierviii. This proves almost conclusively that Darius's terms were formulas long since used also by his predecessors as well, so that an inscriptional expression necessarily implies an eaflier original in Iran; but the same argument does not hold with regard to the terms in Ezekiel to prove a prior Israelitish origin, because these latter were distinctly of foreign origin.

We can not say in regard to those of Israel, as we can say of those of Behistan, that these ideas in Ezekiel must have had predecessors in Israel. For it seems to be distinctly acknowledged by all fair-minded and capable persons that the general cast of ideas as regards the eschatology and its kindred points existing in the time of the Exile and subsequently to it, was strikingly different from the tone of thought upon these subjects in the earlier Biblical literature.

The expression "a thousand years" occurs more than three times in the Avesta itself, and all the other features are likewise marked in it. Re- call also the expressions cited by Plutarch from Theo- pompus? The "Throne of God and of the Lamb" xxii. Without laying the smallest stress upon any possible or probable immediate literary connec- tion showing the influence of the Avesta in the above par- ticulars cited from Ezekiel, Zechariah, Daniel and the Apocalypse, it is yet difficult to resist the conviction from the whole of them, that they conjointly indicate the intellec- tual and esthetic world in which the Exilic and post- Exilic Jews and Jewish Christians lived and that this was domi- ; nated by the scenes and associations of the Perso-Baby- lonian Exile.

But the Perso-Babylonian intellectual world was interpenetrated with the same type of conception and imagery which previously, or simultaneously, prevailed in the Median Zoroastrianism and in the religion of the Daric Achaemenian inscriptions; and the "captive exiles" are twice pointedly said to have been re-settled in the "Cities of the Medes" as well as in Assyria. If this were the case the priests of the people were in almost daily contact with highly ritualistic Zoroastrians or pre-Zoroastrians, if I might so express myself, Zoroastrianism being of course only a culmination.

Even had they never met the Median priests, which is well-nigh impossible, the main tenets of Zoroastrianism were daily forced upon their notice through the laity, who had later five periods in the day for reciting prayers, and may have had them earlier. Here then was "contact" and in pre-eminence. As we have already conceded, the pre-Exilic concepts of futurity were extremely indistinct, but under the general inspiration of the Exile the other life began to take on its now familiar marked characteristics ; see above.

This has been our result so far. Prominent among the expressions used would be "for ever and ever" see Daniel ii. So that we have before us an en- tirely fresh Dogmatik as to this particular in their Exilic and post- Exilic documents. But in the Avesta we have an "endless futurity" from the remotest inception of the lore and we have also in it, as we may well claim, the earliest expression of the idea in a refined literature and outside of barbaric assertions of it.

This occurs in the oldest Avesta in such terms as vispai yavoi, "to all futurity," yavaetaite, "in the contin- uance, i. In our natural anxiety to do justice to the initiative of the Avesta upon this particular, we must by no means make light of this. Unquestionably indeed the thought of immortality in the Veda first acquired consistency from that of "long life" only, the "hundred autumns" of the Rik.

Be this all in the fact of it as it may, the idea constructively is applied even in the Gathas to Ahura as well as to His saints, and must therefore in such connections mean "long 1 eternal life" while in the next oldest book, the Haptang- haiti, the term Amesha better Amersha, i. A SIDE from the actual occurrence of such ideas as the lY number seven when applied to the Archangels of the Avesta and to those mentioned in the Exilic Semitic docu- ments above cited, together with the other similar matters noted, nothing has been considered more effective for the establishment of analogies between the Exilic Bible and the Avesta than the passage Daniel xii.

This recalls at once a dominant element in Zoroastrianism. Resurrection in the Gatha. In the Gathas attention is rather turned to human im- mortality in the light of accountability, making them the earliest consistent documents of such a belief in a civilized literature, while corporeal resurrection is for the most part only implied throughout, as if it were regarded as a sec- ondary matter.

See, however, the expression "forever in the Druj's home their bodies He. The Frashakart in the Gatha, like the idea of the Ame- 1 shaspends, is so real, that it, like them, has not yet secured a quasi-technical name there; so that we cannot pointedly bring it in; but this signal group of thoughts interpreted by the later Avesta implies a corporeal resurrection. Resurrection in the Later Avesta. Many expres- sions in ancient books so notoriously convey the impression that the ideas in- volved in them were of themselves "favorable" and "affirmative" that we are almost at times constrained to restore an apparently improbable text in a sense adapted to this important characteristic.

See Yasht XIX for the further form and color, "where the world, shall be never dying, it, not decaying, never rotting, ever living, ever useful profit- making , having power to fulfil all wishes [a charac- teristic expression, meaning that 'the world's inhabitants will then be dominant'], when the dead shall arise and immortal life 2 shall come, when the settlements shall all be deathless.

In the Later Z oroast nanism. In the Bundahesh, chap. XXXI, we have as follows: 4 "On the nature of the resurrection it says in Revelations 2 This passage has always been held by thorough scholars to follow the Gathas by a few centuries, but a tendency has been lately manifested to place the later Avesta some centuries after Christ, and this while the Gathas them- selves are still firmly held to be at least somewhat older than the Achaemenian inscriptions.

But this would be to place a vast interval of time, more than a thousand years, between the original Avesta and its sequents, which seems to me to be rather irrational. The later Zoroastrianism is however a different matter.

Catalog Record: Zarathustra, Philo, the Achaemenids and | HathiTrust Digital Library

That of course post-dated the later Avesta, which intervenes between it, the later Zoroastrianism, and the Gathas. V, pp. XLIV, avapas toish] on the spiritual support of far - compassed light [was fire also thought of? First the bones of Gayomard [the Iranian Adam] are raised up ['the dead in Christ shall first arise'], then those of Mashyoi and Mashyoi, [the first human pair], then those of the rest of mankind.

In the fifty-seven years of Soshyans, they prepare all the dead, and all men arise [stand up], whoever is righteous and whoever is wicked, every human creature ['I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God'] they rouse them up ; from the spot where its life departs. Afterward when all material living beings assume again their bodies and forms, then they assign them each to a single class. Of the light accompanying the sun one-half shall be for Gayomard ['there is one glory of the sun'] of the stars ['Another glory of the stars' 'one star differs from another star in glory'] and one-half of the light will give enlightenment ; among the rest of men, so that the soul and body will know that is my father and this is my mother, etc.

C, and this strong eschatology is homogeneous an unbroken chain with that of prede- in cessors to the time of the Gathas, whereas the Jewish doctrine of the later days was an innovation of the time of the Exile intended to console the captives who had lost their homes and their property; see above. The same remark applies to all other post-Christian Zoroastrian doc- trines. So far as imagery concerned, the Zoroastrian pales before its is sequent, though Zoroastrianism shows a superior refine- ment and depth in one supreme particular; for not only does it concern itself more immediately and chiefly with the moral accountability and the future state than other systems of its date, but it offers the first well-certified oc- currence of the great and crucial doctrine of Subjective Recompense, the idea that "virtue is its own reward, and vice its own punishment" see below.

Subjective recompense was also not of course the whole of the Zoroastrian Heaven and Hell; but it was the soul of them, and this might be said to be almost the crown- ing glory of this entire scheme, curious as such a statement may at first sight of it appear to some of us to be. The Judgment in the Gdtha. XLIII, 4 we have "For : so I conceived of three as August [with others 'as Holy'], Ahura Mazda, O when I beheld Thee as supreme in the generation of life; when as rewarding deeds and words Thou didst establish evil for 1 2 the evil, blest rewardings for the good by Thy just vir- 3 4 tue in the creation's final change.

XXX, 4: "Then those Spirits created as first they two come to- gether life and our death decreeing, and how the world at Hardly "riches" here. Or are these preterits to be read in the sense of futures expressed in the sense of the improper conjunctive? Druj the blow of destruction descendeth, but swiftest in the abode of the good Mind gather the righteous; with Mazda and Asha they dwell, advancing in their good fame.

What is the wicked's debt, and their portion what in the Judgment? XXXI, 21 : "He who deceives the saint for him "shall at last be destruction long life in the darkness his 6 lot, vile his food, with revilings loathsome; These be your world, O ye foul. By your deeds your own soul will bring it. In Druj's home at last 9 their forms abide " [or "in Falsehood's home at last the citizens? Judgment in the Later Avesta.

Where does the rewarding take place? Where is the awarding fulfilled? Whither do men come for the reward which in their life in the material world they have made good for the soul? For it, the soul V. A welcome which recalls the most touching passage in St. Matthew, xxv. It then proceeds upon its path toward the summit of Kara Berezaiti, High Mountain , the name surviving in Elburz in the territory at the southwest still corner of the Caspian till a late period. There the soul comes before the golden throne of Vo- humanah, who strangely enough represents the "Holy Man" like the "Son of man" in the Gospels see above ; ; and he, Vohumanah, is also indeed the Good Mind of God and of His saints personified, recalling our doctrine of the divinity of Christ, which represents Christ as being both God and man.

He rises from his seat and greets the ap- proaching saved man. One of the faithful beside Vohu- manah, full of concern, asks him "When didst thou come : from that transitory world to this intransitory one? Judgment in the Later Zoroastrianism. These delineations of Avesta are continued on the Bun- dahesh say A.

In the Bunda- hesh on p. As says on that day, when the righteous man is it parted from the wicked, the tears of every one thereupon run down into his legs they weep, the righteous for the ; wicked, and the wicked for himself, etc. In Daniel we have the fiery stream and the melted metal, and so we have the Lake of Fire in Revelations xx. In the Gathas Y. LI we have "the melted 11 bronze" with no lake or river mentioned, but in the Bundahesh it is a river p.

A Recurrence, for Illustration. In leaving this department of the subject it will not be much amiss if I go back for a moment to the point above see pp. XXII, 7ff. XIX, We remember where our blessed Lord, Vohumanah, upon His throne, addresses His not unlike redeemed judgment, saying: "Come ye blessed of my in Father. I was a stranger and ye took me in," etc. Matthew, for here in Avesta it is the believer's conscience which addresses him. So in St. Matthew, as we have it further on, the bewildered soul inquires with pleased if startled wonder "when saw 11 could So I now understand the passage, having formerly thought it read literally, "as hammered bronze," referring to a sword blade.

Curiously enough we have. On its Chinvat the soul first meets a fragrant way to the zephyr loaded with aromas of a better land and it asks ; : "What is this fragrance which is the most rich which my nostrils have ever grasped? But this pleasedwonder is again and more incisively expressed in the next scene immediately following, where the image is a holy maid who appears in the bloom of her beauty.

The Soul asks as before "Who art thou, O Maiden, who : art the most beautiful whom my eyes have seen? For when thou sawest idol-worship thou didst de- sist. In the Gos- pel, however, it is not in the very forefront, while in Avesta it is the chief moral good deed mentioned : "Coming from 12 "Invited me. In either case, in both Gospel and Avesta, the soul is pleasingly bewildered, needing explanation as before: "When saw I thee a stranger?

It is from this on that the soul goes toward the golden thrones of Vohumanah, Ahura and the rest, as we saw above. And this final and all-inclusive. But have on the contrary the impression that, after I having done all that lay within my power to do to awaken interest and to show how the intellectual forces which I proposed to marshal might be thought to tell upon the de- cision, might then offer a sort of final incisive effect if it I gather up the force of what has been said, and more closely define this one of the principal factors brought into operation.

What then, in a distinctive or exclusive defi- nition of it, is this particular Zoroastrianism, the partial effects ofwhich I have endeavored somewhat closely to trace inmy few pages above? The Avesta and the Veda. As Veda, which is certainly the nearest to the Indian relative of the Avesta on the southern or south-eastern side, I need hardly say that we have here no serious cause to linger further, as I have dwelt upon it elsewhere in fuller terms. The common elements of both Veda and Avesta involved in such a review of them as this, are fa- miliar and they are also clear and definable ; but they were ; loosely scattered within the vast labyrinth of early lore which resembles rather an immense and florid forest, where the separated materials of both Avesta and Veda lay at hand, and from which both emerged, its home being far away from all Contact with the southern land and up toward the north and north-west of Iran while of the two ; the Avesta and Rig Veda, the Veda, let us concede it, far more closely resembles those original growths, though so much more distant from the common original home for the simple reason that there is more of it.

A lore which is comparatively sparse, from that very fact cannot repro- duce so many of the early features of its mother lore, as a sister branch can which is more voluminous. Veda, there- fore, as a matter of course, shows more of the common original than Avesta. The Ameshaspends, chief concepts of Avesta, are there in the Veda as I have so fully shown in Zarathushtra and the Greeks, but they were by no means present as a quintessence of selected and especially venerated significant ideas.

The highest gods of Veda seem to struggle in a throng to attain position above their colleagues; but this desired eminence is hardly the serious and solemn supe- riority occupied by the Iranian Ahura as he appears in the Avesta; nor does any one of them really arrive at such position as He seeks, at least none of them reaches it to hold it southern imagination was too fervid, restless and ; creative. Southern life with its milder climates and swarm- ing populations offered too wide an opportunity for both impassioned action, active conjecture, and vehement ex- pression.

Each great Deity has to defend his position against his on-coming rivals, one or more. Zoroastrianism, that is to say, in its earlier form, that of the Gathas, is, on the contrary, almost our modern sys- tem, startling indeed beyond most other things, even when regarded solely as a literary curiosity, with its supreme and refined good Deity and with its excluded Devil which last idea was indeed one of the best of great suggestions ever made to rid our God of all complicity with crime.

The vile thing, by this doctrine of an "independent Satan," is forever shut out from Him. Nowhere does the Veda show a trace of this; at least not definitely, while the Attributes are almost scattered as if lost amidst an interminable overgrowth ; so much for that relation with the Veda, so vitally essential as in its elements it is. The Avesta and the Inscriptions. But what of the Daric Inscriptions and their system, aside from what has been already said or implied above, where, as we see, the relation, so far as it at first presents itself,looks like identity out and out?

And here I must pause to make a remark which is almost a stern reproach to science to be obliged to utter. It is that this question has never been put popularly into print and pressed home be- fore, at least not in any effective and incisive way, though of course must have been long since often loosely stated it in scattered remarks and in many an essay. As may be seen everywhere above, and in the larger work, the Daric Inscriptions are our great and only posi- tive bridge of literary and historical connection between Israel and the Avesta; for they objectively form almost a constituent part of the Bible on the one side, and of the Avesta on the other and perhaps of the two they stand ; closer to the early pre-Exilic Bible, curious as such a state- ment may at first sight appear to be.

Surely no rational teacher of the Holy Scriptures can dwell on these striking Persian edicts in the Exilic Scriptures so vitally crucial as they are to all religious history, without at the same time eagerly scanning and deeply searching the Inscrip- tions of the very same imperial authorities on Behistan, Persepolis, etc. They possess, indeed, these last, and as of course, in common with the Avesta, that supreme feature, the presence of a God as the Creator of heaven and earth, so termed with a predominant iteration, and therefore they are conspicuously marked above all other documents of their kind ancient or modern.

Taken together with the devotional fervor of Darius expressed, as none such religious aspirations have ever been, in his ever repeated appeals and ascrip- tions of thankful adoration, these particulars constitute one of the most effective conjunctions of intellectual cir- cumstances of their kind and nature ever recorded or pointed out; but it is also of course to the last degree necessary to show the limits of these signal advantages in the comparison; and here we have to lay down a prin- ciple which and unsparing. It is this: is strictly critical while it is in the first place certainly true beyond all reason- able question that there existed both a knowledge of the Avesta as a series of Medic documents, and also of its general main features on the part of the persons who dic- tated the texts from which the stone-cutters chiseled the Inscriptions of Behistan, etc.

While, in- deed, taking into consideration the necessarily limited ex- tent of the Inscriptions as literary matter, they might be regarded in some aspects of them as being almost the most prominent signal documents of all Monotheism, Creation- ism and of passionate personal devotion at their date, yet, for all that, they are by no means at all so near the Israelitish creed in the point of their doctrines as the Avesta is ; and we cannot leave our subject until we make this clear.

The Dualism. Strange as it may seem, we cannot even affirm from these majestic memorials alone i. He may indeed not have been called by the full title "Angra Mainyu" in the lore of the Inscriptions, but by some modi- fication of it. Or, again, he may have lost in the Achse- menian lore that independence of Auramazda which is of such vital moment in Avesta, just as under the form of Satan he lost it later in the Gospels, where he is completely?

The Ameshaspends. Nothing of its kind approaches it in this respect in the history of any religion with which I am acquainted, unless in cases where the one religion has been distinctly a descendant of the other; that is to say, nothing that is prominent and well assured. Avesta and the Exilic Bible should be to all conscientious searchers the question of the hour. So much for this. But another matter indeed of an analogous character presses closely upon us with the implied demand to make it finally plain in the full scope of all our inferences.

We have been talking at every juncture of what is Exilic, pre- Exilic, and post- Exilic. But what do we really mean by it all? What then really "Exilic" in a closer is definition? The distinction is of course the one most vital of its kind of all that one can possibly make with regard and I have indeed necessarily foreshadowed to the Bible; everywhere what I am now about more distinctly and more 1 See my Zarathushtra, the Achcemenids, and Israel, at the places as per index.

Exilic and Pre-Exilic. The matter in its closer point is this everywhere : We speak of the "Exilic Books" but it is an obvious and pres- ; sing fact that much Exilic matter is present in many places in our at present so-called pre-Exilic texts we might indeed ; be imperatively forced to doubt the uninfluenced existence of any pre-Exilic texts at all, for how could that primeval lore have been preserved intact; since all knowledge of important parts of it was even entirely lost in such a period 2 as the reign of Josiah.

And in a discussion like this, Ex- ilic matter, if it exists even at all in the Books which we have hitherto called pre-Exilic, becomes, if recognized, equally with the peculiar doctrinal elements of the later books, an almost supremely dominant factor. What then are the particulars which thus control to a wide extent the situation here? Perils of the Manuscripts. It would be like trifling with it for us to ask whether any persons of credit anywhere suppose that the Hebrew Bible has been miraculously preserved, or preserved other- wise than in the usual manner, according to the regular laws of nature.

We may therefore take it at once for granted that all serious readers here believe that the texts of the Old Testament and New Testament have been handed down to us in manuscripts like all other ancient documents of their kind, and it is indeed a circumstance marvelous enough that they, or any other ancient docu- a 2 Kings xxii. See the impression produced by the finding of the Book of the Law in the Temple even in that enlightened reign. So, even of our Holy Scriptures, one would suppose that a single breath of war or political agitation would literally shake what is pre- served in brittle manuscripts almost to irrecoverable frag- ments; and undoubtedly every convulsion, such as a cam- paign or an has diminished the volume exilic deportation, of these precious objects which have however lived on in their mysterious pertinacity.

Schools of copyists existed everywhere, of course, as well as individual skilled pen- men. The scribes were obviously closely occupied in every center of religious learning as an essential element, and some of them in every detached community must have been charged with the especial care of the sacred rolls. And if this were the case while the Temple still stood, how much more must it have been the case in the keen religious revivals of the Exile? Then, as we have already seen, the avalanche of sorrows which first stupified, then infuriated, and at last reformed the holy race, made them search all the more solemnly their religious scriptures.

The to them, doubtless, most impressive pageants of their ritual had exercised unquestionably much restrain- ing influence of a favorable character upon their minds as well as stimulated to some degree the active elements in their faith, and in fact it had been all-important in con- solidatingand preserving their intense unity as a people; but temporal and corporeal considerations held their sway, as was most natural, in the incessant struggle and friction of their doubtless busy national and civic life in its periods of prosperity, with all its fervent passion and its vivid color and this may be readily seen in the mar- : velous literary productions of the Exilic period.

At first their experiences were bitter indeed, with the effect that their beauti- ful lyrics were the more often heard stirring the calm evening air in the rural suburbs of Babylon and in its surrounding provinces. The songs of Zion become then their consolation, and since the sacred scenes of the Temple no longer survived to impart support to them, they began all the more eagerly to read and search their to them inspired scriptures; yes, and to write further such compositions for themselves so that to those bards of the "sad" Captivity we owe most of the sublimer passages of all the Semitic Revelation.

Recopying of course took place, as it had never been so pushed on before; and it was done by men who lived near Babylon among the Persian garrisons as well as im- mediately within the "Cities of the Medes. Here then was Judaism in the heart of Media which was even more Zoroastrian than Per- siaproper or than Persian Babylonia. Was not Ragha itself a chief one of those very "Cities of the Medes" to which allusion is twice made categorically in Kings; Ragha which was a very hot-bed of Zoroastrianism?

Surely Ra- gha, as almost the center of the tale of Tobit, has high claims to have been at least one of those places where the tribes were originally placed. These imperial people, as we see from Ezra and his successors, knew much of the "Great God" of their new subjects; and that the Jewish leaders knew something of their faith, in recipro- cating interest, it would be ridiculous to doubt; informa- tionon the one side here of course presupposes information on the other. Avidity is none too strong an expression to describe the curiosity with which the gifted Semites must have questioned every Persian priest among their other new found fellow citizens, though in the case of the Babylo- nians the first ferocities of resentment must be allowed time to have worn away.

And what were whose names were these angelic beings echoed everywhere among their new-found friends? If then they could really understand that these noble words meant in their first ap- plication more, far more, than the titles of mere angels, :hat they were actually the descriptive appellations of Ps attributes see above, and only then later personified ; as His first creatures, how striking this must have ap- peared to them. And what was this deep doctrine "as to thought, as to word, and as to deed"?

Surely it is impossible that the Jewish schools of Babylon, not to speak again of those in the "Cities of the Medes," should not have known something about the faith of their Persian king, whose troops and courtiers, and beyond all question whose priests also, swarmed on every side with the usual staffs of as- sisting acolytes. Ignorance here seems simply inconceiv- able. They must have been little indeed like their succes- sors, the well-known Jewish seers of keenest wit in Baby- lon, if they knew nothing of all this. Unlike indeed the men who founded the impressive schools at that great center, and who wrote our Exilic Bible for us, with our finest Talmud; little of their kind indeed were they, if they did not find out all that Cyrus's priests could tell them, while the great King was doubtless himself seen often in his first Capitol both in ordinary imperial resi- dence and in the ever-intervening crises of his reign.

Re- member how closely even an Alexander some centuries later on could question the Persian Destoors as to their lore with its impressive creed while at later than the latter's date Jewish stories were half pure Persian in Medish scenes; see above. Every Exile prophet, whose works have survived to us, shows that he breathed a new found atmosphere - ; though he may have learned the Persian tenets by hearsay only and at second or indeed only at third hand, just as they must have later heard of the great inscriptions when they were newly cut and of many a predecessor of them now long since vanished, for that their replicas were every- where is clear from Behistan.

Those on that rock could not be at all reached by the passing wayfarers who might wish to read. The contrary to this is excluded absolutely from all sane consideration; see also the alleged messages from Cyrus on his side as also those from Darius, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes; and see their edicts in our Bibles with the throngs of ordinary Persian words and names like Mithra- dates, among those of the Jews. These things do not prove intercourse; they are "intercourse" itself.

And as the prophets, so the priests, and the priestly scribes; the devoted men toiled doubly for many a weary day copying and recopying the holy texts. That they did not restore, interpolate and emend them everywhere is inconceivable, if for no other reason, then because they were often for the most part quite half the time half-legible; and duty itself would call on them to bring the dim tracings back; whole folios and even masses of folios would be also lost, gone doubtless forever.

Emendations were therefore made everywhere at frequent intervals; see above; could this have been avoided? And this took place, as we must clearly see, all the more with regard to the oldest and most sacred parts of Holy Writ. Do we suppose that the skins on which Genesis was painted were really any stronger than those inscribed with the first Isaiah, or that the pig- ments used as ink were less capable of effecting corrosions in the course of time?

Often indeed would the oldest scripture stand recopied in the newest handwriting and upon the freshest scroll. Their new-found ardor, born of their adversities and their new associations, had created the searching diatribes of Ezekiel and of the rest, and it is inconceivable that the re-writers did not add stirring passages even in the oldest documents to their studies in their endeavor to restore and point the meaning here and there.

And from us gather our ideas of the "Exilic" elements this let in the still embedded in the Semitic books former through- out the very oldest documents, though of course these very emendations have themselves shared somewhat the fate of their primeval predecessors. Time and accident, travel, exile, war and sacrilege have of course changed text after text, and this beyond all question even in the oldest books. Yet what original is not so hard to recognize simply is ; because the Exilic interpolations are so clear. I will not prolong this point; this conclusion is but intended to be a short remark.

Everywhere throughout the oldest books of the pre- Exilic Bibles, the re- writers inserted their keener thoughts: so that "pre-Exilic" is a very dubious term. We must search the very texts of the Hexateuch for it if we would do our work, for Exilic matter must be everywhere. With this I close my brief essay, begun at the request of a distinguished friend, but here expanded far beyond the limits of a short Appendix, all that was at first in- tended. For a greater substitute more hastily struck off, still see Appendix IV of the able conservative work of the Rev.

Wright on Daniel, Vol. II, Exilic matter crops out everywhere throughout. It is better than Deus, Zeus, which referred to the shining sky; better than "God," far better in its origin at least; for, curiously enough, it ex- presses the same supervening ideas that we have in the Hebrew Yahveh which was later thought to mean "the being One," the "I am that I am. The Amesha Spent a. While the six characteristics virtues would not be the proper word are absolutely the main laws of a right- eous universe, clear and pure. Simple indeed they are, as all things universal must be common too, as the breath- ; 1 An unquestionably later interpolation of Exilic origin.

A Brief Overview of Zoroastrianism

Here they are in a sense collected ; and in them all that is fittest for expression speaks to us. Not of themselves only do they thus impel us, once merely uttered, and then left wandering, scattered as it were amidst an innumerable host of other similarly treasured spiritual things. Gems of imperishable cost they would be, or they are, even then as so dispersed, and so existing to us, though almost irretrievably hidden amidst the throngs of other beauty from our most eager sight.

And so indeed they actually once lay strewn like jewels of first water all dull and unpolished and rarely recognized in the bed-rock of their unwrought mines or buried in their native clay; vague surmises were they ever even then of the eternal way in which the beneficial powers sometimes work for us for good. But here, as seen, they are gathered up for us; not like the glittering objects in a diadem, that would be indeed too low an image, not like the flowers upon a full-flushed tree, but like the solar systems around their central orb.

Like this these all-pervading order- forces revolve around the throne of their Great Sover- eign; nay more, they actuate the very Person of the God Omnipotent, in honor they are not His decora- tions; far from it, God forbid. They are His very Na- ture. He is the self-dividing, all enclosing Prism of them all, the One of glorious hues that fold and unfold them- selves in everlasting light. They are in a word God's character, than which no further thought is thinkable.

Asha, the very first law of all our better consciousness, here even seriously gains in its application, marvelous as such a thing may seem to some of us to be. It, Asha, is indeed itself and in itself, Heaven's and nature's moral guide, here declared also to be the first firstprinciple of God's eternal being. It is lifted up by all that there is in the conception of the divine personality, brought into operation, becoming at once when estab- lished among the Six a mighty challenging idea flinging its defiance at that one gigantic, but malign element, its opposite, the Lie, a spirit demon which withers us on every side.

It proclaimed the Truth in the post-ultimate mean- ing of the word, asserting that there was indeed such a thing as a law actual, and this not as a pointless senti- ment, feebly fluttering, but as the very first instinct of God's character. From eternity past it has been the same, so in the vital present, and to all coming futurity will it abide unchangeable.

Ifwe, who struggle to maintain honor, believe God to be indeed a person, here is a support immeasurable for us. The great crucified but risen Christ of faith cheers all our efforts on, for has an almighty mind to harbor it and to it guard it, to assist it, and proclaim it in the very ultimate essence of its worth; for of such a mind is it indeed an all-controlling, dominant, though merely regulative part. What a consolation indeed for those who think Truth possible and who believe in God in any sense of Him ; to think that there is at least one person who is True, and such a Person!

And we see how beautifully such a creed applies itself. Abandon honor and He vanishes. There is no God but the true God, the Asha- God. But like all things of its nature the growth of this great but simple principle, in its recognition of course I mean, was, as I say, but gradual. It developed at slowly enough indeed, as we may first both most readily conjecture and concede, with languid signs of life as its first glimmer shone among the vague dreams of sentient beings, glowing feebly into fuller light. And elsewhere and aside from either, it seems to have been in fact the very last and most remote of all the ideas to be recognized as concentered and so elevated in the forms of ancient creeds, as at all in any way a particular trait of any one of all the beings called "divine," not even of the chief of them, so luxuriantly depicted as they are in the wreaths of our immortal song.

Even in the pre-Gathic age it, Asha of the Holy Truth, was of course surmised dimly as a universal regulative power but only by degrees did it unfold itself into clear ; consciousness as it grew, as all things like it must. That is to say, the very first idea of it as a concept developed but tardily as our race rose from its animal predecessors. Some sort of consecutive sequence may indeed have even revealed itself to the instincts of the higher animals; the next beneath us but ; it is better to confine ourselves to man.

The observed regularity in the sequence of natural phe- nomena first riveted attention as we grew human; espe- cially the heavenly bodies seemed to follow some rule, chief of all and naturally the God-like sun, which was often seen quite unclouded for long periods in lands called Iran. Its august reappearances followed Law even in its super- vening changes in situation and intensity, with occasional eclipse.

Without one phase of it planting would be impossible, without an- other harvest, without a third the source of tonic health. Soon the moon, its brother luminary, for the moon is masculine both in Veda and Avesta, took up the tale with his five changes,and with these the reverting atmospheric modifications seemed to harmonize. The main features of the advancing year-time seemed ever calculable.

The great wind-storms of the Marutis, with their driven clouds flying on before them, seemed to arrive at certain intervals in many regions including India, with the return of and snow elsewhere and mostly ice hated, the periodic rains torrential or soft and fertilizing, the dews and the flowering earth itself these all followed: one another at seeming regulated intervals it was Asha, ; order. Endeared among was the inextinguishable all else fire not only blazing in the ever self-consuming God of day, but in the very bowels of the earth, known too in the caloric of plants, flaming also in forked lightning in the heavens, snake-like in figure; again it was the friend of man on hearth and altar.

Asha became its very synonym, and so from this its sacredness, from regularity; it was 3 indeed "God's son. All was the unvarying forms of recurring certainty; circling it was Asha, rita, "rhythm. What wonder then that they began to think that the thoughts of God were similar, supposing always that they had at that time any distinct idea whatsoever of a God, 8 A frequent expression as applied to it in the late Avesta.

It was "nature" always and everywhere, natura, "to be born," and to be born again, natura, not futura merely, but natura, to be rhythmically born in a reap- pearance never unreasoned in its process, seed, stem, leaves, fruit, to seed, stem, leaves and fruit again, stream, mist, cloud, rain, to stream, mist, cloud, rain again, spring freshness, summer bloom, autumn harvest, winter frost with cheer or misery, to spring, bloom, harvest, frost again.

It was law forever fulfilling itself, Asha, Rita, Rhythm. So in the old Veda, in those early days, when man had however somewhat begun to form himself; Rita was so distinctly recognized that the very ceremonial service to the Heavenly Spirits followed its course in imitation. But it was only in the stern Gatha, rough and sparse but glorious, that the Rita, Asha, became so exalted as the passionate honor of an Holy God in a sense supreme, a deity whose creature, the very foremost of all the other 4 divine beings it was declared to be.

What an exaltation, let me again assert it, for simple but awful justice, the first pure principle of all sane consciousness at least in man, and as we see, the first spiritual force in God. He is not an "infinite person," which could only be the language of 4 Mithra, a noble God indeed like the most exalted of our Archangels, whose cult rivaled Christianity for a long time.

Vohu Manah. Then Vohu Manah, the "Good Mind," was again a thing enthroned, and for that alone, if for nothing else, made eminent. This was again too a curious thought in a savage age in far off Persia to be placed in such position for then it was that the gods of Greece wrangled like vulgar households and even our Jewish Yahveh was a "consuming fire. It was more than a tame negation, a life- less acquiescence; it was a warm breath of active sym- pathy, a passion pervading conscious nature everywhere like a befriending instinct, a slender thread of sweetness in all the intricacies of interior feeling that gives us hope through the maniac jars of this thing which we call life.

Vohu Manah it was all that is holiest in emotions, fervor ; inpure breasts and brains; the quiet force in the love of man for his brother the power in the noble love of man for ; woman so deep and so transforming, fierce too also at times, past holding ; Vohu Manah it is the father's sol- emn all-giving watchfulness which makes the name of "son" our deepest word. Above all else it is the mother-love, that nerve of all controlling tenderness planted in every female soul over a little thing endowed for that very reason with a charm unspeakable, to win and keep.

Zarathustra, Philo, The Achaemenids And Israel

And this Vohu Manah is again not left, according to the Gatha, a blind, un- guided force, though beatific, in the world of sentient be- 5 Definition implies limit; see below. With Khshathra we come upon the deeply fundamental element of Rule. Not men, nor angels can persist without it. Some forceful form of right is needed to control and maintain the Law and Love, shaping their every application Khshathra, government, administration! With anarchy all property would turn worthless; no man could earn his bread; progress would be imperilled.

Khshathra is command, severe indeed at times. Strength must emerge from commonplace while commonplace resists it. Conspiracy is unveiled by govern- ment law put in force, Khshathra as "strength" meant discipline,combination with organization ; without it ral- lying points would be difficult, and the dush-Khshathra would sweep the isolated hordes away.

Fields could not be cultivated save from Aeshma, "Raid fury of the bloody spear. And what a satisfaction have we here again, who believe the Gatha. Khshathra is not alone a universal law though marvelous indeed as such he would be, or he is part of the moving crystallization of the ever re-forming universe the forceful way in which ; things come and hold together, while like the flying blood they circulate.

It is more it is the rule of our Sovereign : God over us. Where would be, indeed, the Truth in- stinct of sincerity though it is? In Gatha it is the authority of God, as universal Monarch, exercising His might throughout His all-world and at every pulse. We at times indeed lose courage, recalling our human administrations ; but if we believe that Go d is King, our hopes revive.

According to the divine doctrine, and in the full implications, every needed office in every government, as well as every official, was and is in the very fact ener- gized and vivified by Khshathra as the controlling force in the Life-spirit-Lord. He stands through Khshathra in every court of justice seeing that the wronged are pro- tected.

The word Sa- ; 9 traps of vi. The "Living God" vi. See also "The Ancient of Days" again, which, aside from that most significant expression "in Boundless Time" 10 recalls Ahura as he who is "the same at every now" recall "the same, yesterday, to-day and for ever. Most curiously both 8 "care of the poor" was a marked Gathic idea; and in spite of a The despotic government, if not in consequence of it, the "poor" seem always to have had some special privileges in Persia as against the aristocracy.

Notice Gabriel's, "the man's voice," of viii. So Vohu- manah was really "mercy" see ix. In ix. There was also a "curse" almost personified in Avesta. See again "all the Righteousness of God," ix.

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XXXII, ii. XIX, i, where Ahura himself takes part. XLIII; see x. In xi. I do not know what to suggest with regard to the other two angels of Daniel xii. The Angel in Rev. Arta-i-Viraf, however, was "in the spirit" much after the fashion of St. John, though in his case Arta-i-Viraf 's this took place with the assistance of a drug. There is also a prominent book called the "Spirit of Wisdom. The Son of Man again, as in Daniel, recalls Vohuman who 15 represented "man. In Rev. There were "two first spirits" : see also the word ap a ourvyam, "having no first"; that is to "Meaning "at will," "with complete sway.

The description of the seven stars as the "seven angels of the seven churches Rev. The idea and the words as already stated, were taken over from the seven angels before "the throne. The "tree of life" ii. He who was dead and is alive again" Rev. The intervention of the Satanic opposition ii. Periods of trial ii.

Satan's throne ii. We are also reminded of the top of Arezura, V. Idol- worship 14 is one of ii. In ii. The hidden manna, Rev. And we notice once again that the fire was "God's son," the expression often occurring. Here we have as so often no immediate literary connection, but the two ideas were de- termined by the same psychological moment.

Vohumanah distinctly recalls the"beginning of the creation of God" iii. See the "Amen" again for Asha in a most solemn and heart-touching sense from interior parallel de- velopment. The four and twenty elders on thrones iv. Vohu Manah seems to sit down, if not. XIX, , yet upon a throne in His near vicinity recall where the Son of Man sits upon the throne ; of His Glory Vohu Manah also representing the religious man in Avesta, as to which see below the Deity also ; presumably presided. So the seven lamps of fire, 4, 5 have been already mentioned as a manifestation of the angel Atar Adar.

In iv. The especial homage to God as "the Creator" iv. The "white horse" of vi. The angel of the Abyss ix. Recall Ezek. The "beast coming up out of the abyss," Rev. It would seem to be profane to mention the "three days" of the Gospels. Passing over much interesting and apposite detail we have in Rev.

This "Reign of God" is again pre-eminently Khshathra who was Ahura's attri- bute: "the temple of God which is in heaven" xi. The dragon of seven heads is, of course, the Azhi Dahaka of Avesta, Ahi of the Veda, which both the had six heads, the six being changed to seven in Revela- tion on account of the dominant influence of that number with possible reference to the Seven Hills of Rome.

Like the Vedic Ahi, he kept off the rain. There was also "an eagle" in the Avesta in the Yasht xii. The "worship of the dragon" xiii. The "angel with the eternal Gospel" xiv. In xiv. In xv. At xvi. In xvi. And let me also say here in passing that 20 Notice in passing what I must refer to later on, which is the constant rationalism of the Avesta- Vedic concepts as against the Babylonian-Israelitish.

One of the most marvelous of literary circumstances is that all the gods, or most of them, have meaning in Avesta, as in Veda and for the most part ab- stract meaning. Notice again the "Lord of Lords and King of Kings" xvii. The "angel having greatauthority" xviii. The angel "with, the great mill-stone" recalls the mythical Zor- oaster who enemy with an enormous piece of assaults the rock, "large as a cottage," so some render. The Amen xix.

http://officegoodlucks.com/order/83/2589-como-intervenir-el.php The "marriage of the Lamb" xix. In xix. The "white horse" once more immediately suggests again the "white steed" of the Yasht to victory see also the four-span white ; horses of Sraosha. The "faithful and true" one recalls the old Persian ideal see Herodotus it had its root in Asha. The name upon his thigh is again our Aryan "King of Kings" of the Inscriptions, here fitting in especially because not applied to the Supreme Deity, as indeed also once in Daniel where as in the Persian Inscription it refers to a human potentate. In xix 17, we have the Hvare Khsh a - eta as the shining sun once more ; again Ezekierviii.

This proves almost conclusively that Darius's terms were formulas long since used also by his predecessors as well, so that an inscriptional expression necessarily implies an eaflier original in Iran; but the same argument does not hold with regard to the terms in Ezekiel to prove a prior Israelitish origin, because these latter were distinctly of foreign origin. We can not say in regard to those of Israel, as we can say of those of Behistan, that these ideas in Ezekiel must have had predecessors in Israel. For it seems to be distinctly acknowledged by all fair-minded and capable persons that the general cast of ideas as regards the eschatology and its kindred points existing in the time of the Exile and subsequently to it, was strikingly different from the tone of thought upon these subjects in the earlier Biblical literature.

The expression "a thousand years" occurs more than three times in the Avesta itself, and all the other features are likewise marked in it. Re- call also the expressions cited by Plutarch from Theo- pompus? The "Throne of God and of the Lamb" xxii. Without laying the smallest stress upon any possible or probable immediate literary connec- tion showing the influence of the Avesta in the above par- ticulars cited from Ezekiel, Zechariah, Daniel and the Apocalypse, it is yet difficult to resist the conviction from the whole of them, that they conjointly indicate the intellec- tual and esthetic world in which the Exilic and post- Exilic Jews and Jewish Christians lived and that this was domi- ; nated by the scenes and associations of the Perso-Baby- lonian Exile.

But the Perso-Babylonian intellectual world was interpenetrated with the same type of conception and imagery which previously, or simultaneously, prevailed in the Median Zoroastrianism and in the religion of the Daric Achaemenian inscriptions; and the "captive exiles" are twice pointedly said to have been re-settled in the "Cities of the Medes" as well as in Assyria. If this were the case the priests of the people were in almost daily contact with highly ritualistic Zoroastrians or pre-Zoroastrians, if I might so express myself, Zoroastrianism being of course only a culmination. Even had they never met the Median priests, which is well-nigh impossible, the main tenets of Zoroastrianism were daily forced upon their notice through the laity, who had later five periods in the day for reciting prayers, and may have had them earlier.

Here then was "contact" and in pre-eminence. As we have already conceded, the pre-Exilic concepts of futurity were extremely indistinct, but under the general inspiration of the Exile the other life began to take on its now familiar marked characteristics ; see above. This has been our result so far. Prominent among the expressions used would be "for ever and ever" see Daniel ii. So that we have before us an en- tirely fresh Dogmatik as to this particular in their Exilic and post- Exilic documents. But in the Avesta we have an "endless futurity" from the remotest inception of the lore and we have also in it, as we may well claim, the earliest expression of the idea in a refined literature and outside of barbaric assertions of it.

This occurs in the oldest Avesta in such terms as vispai yavoi, "to all futurity," yavaetaite, "in the contin- uance, i. In our natural anxiety to do justice to the initiative of the Avesta upon this particular, we must by no means make light of this. Unquestionably indeed the thought of immortality in the Veda first acquired consistency from that of "long life" only, the "hundred autumns" of the Rik.

Be this all in the fact of it as it may, the idea constructively is applied even in the Gathas to Ahura as well as to His saints, and must therefore in such connections mean "long 1 eternal life" while in the next oldest book, the Haptang- haiti, the term Amesha better Amersha, i. A SIDE from the actual occurrence of such ideas as the lY number seven when applied to the Archangels of the Avesta and to those mentioned in the Exilic Semitic docu- ments above cited, together with the other similar matters noted, nothing has been considered more effective for the establishment of analogies between the Exilic Bible and the Avesta than the passage Daniel xii.

This recalls at once a dominant element in Zoroastrianism. Resurrection in the Gatha. In the Gathas attention is rather turned to human im- mortality in the light of accountability, making them the earliest consistent documents of such a belief in a civilized literature, while corporeal resurrection is for the most part only implied throughout, as if it were regarded as a sec- ondary matter.

See, however, the expression "forever in the Druj's home their bodies He. The Frashakart in the Gatha, like the idea of the Ame- 1 shaspends, is so real, that it, like them, has not yet secured a quasi-technical name there; so that we cannot pointedly bring it in; but this signal group of thoughts interpreted by the later Avesta implies a corporeal resurrection. Resurrection in the Later Avesta. Many expres- sions in ancient books so notoriously convey the impression that the ideas in- volved in them were of themselves "favorable" and "affirmative" that we are almost at times constrained to restore an apparently improbable text in a sense adapted to this important characteristic.

See Yasht XIX for the further form and color, "where the world, shall be never dying, it, not decaying, never rotting, ever living, ever useful profit- making , having power to fulfil all wishes [a charac- teristic expression, meaning that 'the world's inhabitants will then be dominant'], when the dead shall arise and immortal life 2 shall come, when the settlements shall all be deathless. In the Later Z oroast nanism. In the Bundahesh, chap. XXXI, we have as follows: 4 "On the nature of the resurrection it says in Revelations 2 This passage has always been held by thorough scholars to follow the Gathas by a few centuries, but a tendency has been lately manifested to place the later Avesta some centuries after Christ, and this while the Gathas them- selves are still firmly held to be at least somewhat older than the Achaemenian inscriptions.

But this would be to place a vast interval of time, more than a thousand years, between the original Avesta and its sequents, which seems to me to be rather irrational. The later Zoroastrianism is however a different matter. That of course post-dated the later Avesta, which intervenes between it, the later Zoroastrianism, and the Gathas. V, pp. XLIV, avapas toish] on the spiritual support of far - compassed light [was fire also thought of?

First the bones of Gayomard [the Iranian Adam] are raised up ['the dead in Christ shall first arise'], then those of Mashyoi and Mashyoi, [the first human pair], then those of the rest of mankind. In the fifty-seven years of Soshyans, they prepare all the dead, and all men arise [stand up], whoever is righteous and whoever is wicked, every human creature ['I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God'] they rouse them up ; from the spot where its life departs.

Afterward when all material living beings assume again their bodies and forms, then they assign them each to a single class. Of the light accompanying the sun one-half shall be for Gayomard ['there is one glory of the sun'] of the stars ['Another glory of the stars' 'one star differs from another star in glory'] and one-half of the light will give enlightenment ; among the rest of men, so that the soul and body will know that is my father and this is my mother, etc.

C, and this strong eschatology is homogeneous an unbroken chain with that of prede- in cessors to the time of the Gathas, whereas the Jewish doctrine of the later days was an innovation of the time of the Exile intended to console the captives who had lost their homes and their property; see above.

The same remark applies to all other post-Christian Zoroastrian doc- trines. So far as imagery concerned, the Zoroastrian pales before its is sequent, though Zoroastrianism shows a superior refine- ment and depth in one supreme particular; for not only does it concern itself more immediately and chiefly with the moral accountability and the future state than other systems of its date, but it offers the first well-certified oc- currence of the great and crucial doctrine of Subjective Recompense, the idea that "virtue is its own reward, and vice its own punishment" see below.

Subjective recompense was also not of course the whole of the Zoroastrian Heaven and Hell; but it was the soul of them, and this might be said to be almost the crown- ing glory of this entire scheme, curious as such a statement may at first sight of it appear to some of us to be. The Judgment in the Gdtha. XLIII, 4 we have "For : so I conceived of three as August [with others 'as Holy'], Ahura Mazda, O when I beheld Thee as supreme in the generation of life; when as rewarding deeds and words Thou didst establish evil for 1 2 the evil, blest rewardings for the good by Thy just vir- 3 4 tue in the creation's final change.

XXX, 4: "Then those Spirits created as first they two come to- gether life and our death decreeing, and how the world at Hardly "riches" here. Or are these preterits to be read in the sense of futures expressed in the sense of the improper conjunctive? Druj the blow of destruction descendeth, but swiftest in the abode of the good Mind gather the righteous; with Mazda and Asha they dwell, advancing in their good fame.

What is the wicked's debt, and their portion what in the Judgment? XXXI, 21 : "He who deceives the saint for him "shall at last be destruction long life in the darkness his 6 lot, vile his food, with revilings loathsome; These be your world, O ye foul. By your deeds your own soul will bring it.

In Druj's home at last 9 their forms abide " [or "in Falsehood's home at last the citizens? Judgment in the Later Avesta. Where does the rewarding take place? Where is the awarding fulfilled? Whither do men come for the reward which in their life in the material world they have made good for the soul? For it, the soul V. A welcome which recalls the most touching passage in St.

Matthew, xxv. It then proceeds upon its path toward the summit of Kara Berezaiti, High Mountain , the name surviving in Elburz in the territory at the southwest still corner of the Caspian till a late period. There the soul comes before the golden throne of Vo- humanah, who strangely enough represents the "Holy Man" like the "Son of man" in the Gospels see above ; ; and he, Vohumanah, is also indeed the Good Mind of God and of His saints personified, recalling our doctrine of the divinity of Christ, which represents Christ as being both God and man.

He rises from his seat and greets the ap- proaching saved man. One of the faithful beside Vohu- manah, full of concern, asks him "When didst thou come : from that transitory world to this intransitory one? Judgment in the Later Zoroastrianism. These delineations of Avesta are continued on the Bun- dahesh say A. In the Bunda- hesh on p. As says on that day, when the righteous man is it parted from the wicked, the tears of every one thereupon run down into his legs they weep, the righteous for the ; wicked, and the wicked for himself, etc. In Daniel we have the fiery stream and the melted metal, and so we have the Lake of Fire in Revelations xx.

In the Gathas Y. LI we have "the melted 11 bronze" with no lake or river mentioned, but in the Bundahesh it is a river p. A Recurrence, for Illustration. In leaving this department of the subject it will not be much amiss if I go back for a moment to the point above see pp. XXII, 7ff. XIX, We remember where our blessed Lord, Vohumanah, upon His throne, addresses His not unlike redeemed judgment, saying: "Come ye blessed of my in Father.

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I was a stranger and ye took me in," etc. Matthew, for here in Avesta it is the believer's conscience which addresses him. So in St. Matthew, as we have it further on, the bewildered soul inquires with pleased if startled wonder "when saw 11 could So I now understand the passage, having formerly thought it read literally, "as hammered bronze," referring to a sword blade. Curiously enough we have. On its Chinvat the soul first meets a fragrant way to the zephyr loaded with aromas of a better land and it asks ; : "What is this fragrance which is the most rich which my nostrils have ever grasped?

But this pleasedwonder is again and more incisively expressed in the next scene immediately following, where the image is a holy maid who appears in the bloom of her beauty. The Soul asks as before "Who art thou, O Maiden, who : art the most beautiful whom my eyes have seen? For when thou sawest idol-worship thou didst de- sist. In the Gos- pel, however, it is not in the very forefront, while in Avesta it is the chief moral good deed mentioned : "Coming from 12 "Invited me.

In either case, in both Gospel and Avesta, the soul is pleasingly bewildered, needing explanation as before: "When saw I thee a stranger? It is from this on that the soul goes toward the golden thrones of Vohumanah, Ahura and the rest, as we saw above.

And this final and all-inclusive. But have on the contrary the impression that, after I having done all that lay within my power to do to awaken interest and to show how the intellectual forces which I proposed to marshal might be thought to tell upon the de- cision, might then offer a sort of final incisive effect if it I gather up the force of what has been said, and more closely define this one of the principal factors brought into operation. What then, in a distinctive or exclusive defi- nition of it, is this particular Zoroastrianism, the partial effects ofwhich I have endeavored somewhat closely to trace inmy few pages above?

The Avesta and the Veda. As Veda, which is certainly the nearest to the Indian relative of the Avesta on the southern or south-eastern side, I need hardly say that we have here no serious cause to linger further, as I have dwelt upon it elsewhere in fuller terms. The common elements of both Veda and Avesta involved in such a review of them as this, are fa- miliar and they are also clear and definable ; but they were ; loosely scattered within the vast labyrinth of early lore which resembles rather an immense and florid forest, where the separated materials of both Avesta and Veda lay at hand, and from which both emerged, its home being far away from all Contact with the southern land and up toward the north and north-west of Iran while of the two ; the Avesta and Rig Veda, the Veda, let us concede it, far more closely resembles those original growths, though so much more distant from the common original home for the simple reason that there is more of it.

A lore which is comparatively sparse, from that very fact cannot repro- duce so many of the early features of its mother lore, as a sister branch can which is more voluminous. Veda, there- fore, as a matter of course, shows more of the common original than Avesta. The Ameshaspends, chief concepts of Avesta, are there in the Veda as I have so fully shown in Zarathushtra and the Greeks, but they were by no means present as a quintessence of selected and especially venerated significant ideas.

The highest gods of Veda seem to struggle in a throng to attain position above their colleagues; but this desired eminence is hardly the serious and solemn supe- riority occupied by the Iranian Ahura as he appears in the Avesta; nor does any one of them really arrive at such position as He seeks, at least none of them reaches it to hold it southern imagination was too fervid, restless and ; creative. Southern life with its milder climates and swarm- ing populations offered too wide an opportunity for both impassioned action, active conjecture, and vehement ex- pression.

Each great Deity has to defend his position against his on-coming rivals, one or more. Zoroastrianism, that is to say, in its earlier form, that of the Gathas, is, on the contrary, almost our modern sys- tem, startling indeed beyond most other things, even when regarded solely as a literary curiosity, with its supreme and refined good Deity and with its excluded Devil which last idea was indeed one of the best of great suggestions ever made to rid our God of all complicity with crime.

The vile thing, by this doctrine of an "independent Satan," is forever shut out from Him. Nowhere does the Veda show a trace of this; at least not definitely, while the Attributes are almost scattered as if lost amidst an interminable overgrowth ; so much for that relation with the Veda, so vitally essential as in its elements it is. The Avesta and the Inscriptions. But what of the Daric Inscriptions and their system, aside from what has been already said or implied above, where, as we see, the relation, so far as it at first presents itself,looks like identity out and out?

And here I must pause to make a remark which is almost a stern reproach to science to be obliged to utter. It is that this question has never been put popularly into print and pressed home be- fore, at least not in any effective and incisive way, though of course must have been long since often loosely stated it in scattered remarks and in many an essay.

As may be seen everywhere above, and in the larger work, the Daric Inscriptions are our great and only posi- tive bridge of literary and historical connection between Israel and the Avesta; for they objectively form almost a constituent part of the Bible on the one side, and of the Avesta on the other and perhaps of the two they stand ; closer to the early pre-Exilic Bible, curious as such a state- ment may at first sight appear to be. Surely no rational teacher of the Holy Scriptures can dwell on these striking Persian edicts in the Exilic Scriptures so vitally crucial as they are to all religious history, without at the same time eagerly scanning and deeply searching the Inscrip- tions of the very same imperial authorities on Behistan, Persepolis, etc.

They possess, indeed, these last, and as of course, in common with the Avesta, that supreme feature, the presence of a God as the Creator of heaven and earth, so termed with a predominant iteration, and therefore they are conspicuously marked above all other documents of their kind ancient or modern. Taken together with the devotional fervor of Darius expressed, as none such religious aspirations have ever been, in his ever repeated appeals and ascrip- tions of thankful adoration, these particulars constitute one of the most effective conjunctions of intellectual cir- cumstances of their kind and nature ever recorded or pointed out; but it is also of course to the last degree necessary to show the limits of these signal advantages in the comparison; and here we have to lay down a prin- ciple which and unsparing.

It is this: is strictly critical while it is in the first place certainly true beyond all reason- able question that there existed both a knowledge of the Avesta as a series of Medic documents, and also of its general main features on the part of the persons who dic- tated the texts from which the stone-cutters chiseled the Inscriptions of Behistan, etc. While, in- deed, taking into consideration the necessarily limited ex- tent of the Inscriptions as literary matter, they might be regarded in some aspects of them as being almost the most prominent signal documents of all Monotheism, Creation- ism and of passionate personal devotion at their date, yet, for all that, they are by no means at all so near the Israelitish creed in the point of their doctrines as the Avesta is ; and we cannot leave our subject until we make this clear.

The Dualism. Strange as it may seem, we cannot even affirm from these majestic memorials alone i. He may indeed not have been called by the full title "Angra Mainyu" in the lore of the Inscriptions, but by some modi- fication of it. Or, again, he may have lost in the Achse- menian lore that independence of Auramazda which is of such vital moment in Avesta, just as under the form of Satan he lost it later in the Gospels, where he is completely? The Ameshaspends. Nothing of its kind approaches it in this respect in the history of any religion with which I am acquainted, unless in cases where the one religion has been distinctly a descendant of the other; that is to say, nothing that is prominent and well assured.

Avesta and the Exilic Bible should be to all conscientious searchers the question of the hour. So much for this. But another matter indeed of an analogous character presses closely upon us with the implied demand to make it finally plain in the full scope of all our inferences. We have been talking at every juncture of what is Exilic, pre- Exilic, and post- Exilic. But what do we really mean by it all? What then really "Exilic" in a closer is definition? The distinction is of course the one most vital of its kind of all that one can possibly make with regard and I have indeed necessarily foreshadowed to the Bible; everywhere what I am now about more distinctly and more 1 See my Zarathushtra, the Achcemenids, and Israel, at the places as per index.

Exilic and Pre-Exilic. The matter in its closer point is this everywhere : We speak of the "Exilic Books" but it is an obvious and pres- ; sing fact that much Exilic matter is present in many places in our at present so-called pre-Exilic texts we might indeed ; be imperatively forced to doubt the uninfluenced existence of any pre-Exilic texts at all, for how could that primeval lore have been preserved intact; since all knowledge of important parts of it was even entirely lost in such a period 2 as the reign of Josiah.

And in a discussion like this, Ex- ilic matter, if it exists even at all in the Books which we have hitherto called pre-Exilic, becomes, if recognized, equally with the peculiar doctrinal elements of the later books, an almost supremely dominant factor. What then are the particulars which thus control to a wide extent the situation here? Perils of the Manuscripts. It would be like trifling with it for us to ask whether any persons of credit anywhere suppose that the Hebrew Bible has been miraculously preserved, or preserved other- wise than in the usual manner, according to the regular laws of nature.

We may therefore take it at once for granted that all serious readers here believe that the texts of the Old Testament and New Testament have been handed down to us in manuscripts like all other ancient documents of their kind, and it is indeed a circumstance marvelous enough that they, or any other ancient docu- a 2 Kings xxii. See the impression produced by the finding of the Book of the Law in the Temple even in that enlightened reign.

So, even of our Holy Scriptures, one would suppose that a single breath of war or political agitation would literally shake what is pre- served in brittle manuscripts almost to irrecoverable frag- ments; and undoubtedly every convulsion, such as a cam- paign or an has diminished the volume exilic deportation, of these precious objects which have however lived on in their mysterious pertinacity.

Schools of copyists existed everywhere, of course, as well as individual skilled pen- men. The scribes were obviously closely occupied in every center of religious learning as an essential element, and some of them in every detached community must have been charged with the especial care of the sacred rolls. And if this were the case while the Temple still stood, how much more must it have been the case in the keen religious revivals of the Exile? Then, as we have already seen, the avalanche of sorrows which first stupified, then infuriated, and at last reformed the holy race, made them search all the more solemnly their religious scriptures.

The to them, doubtless, most impressive pageants of their ritual had exercised unquestionably much restrain- ing influence of a favorable character upon their minds as well as stimulated to some degree the active elements in their faith, and in fact it had been all-important in con- solidatingand preserving their intense unity as a people; but temporal and corporeal considerations held their sway, as was most natural, in the incessant struggle and friction of their doubtless busy national and civic life in its periods of prosperity, with all its fervent passion and its vivid color and this may be readily seen in the mar- : velous literary productions of the Exilic period.

At first their experiences were bitter indeed, with the effect that their beauti- ful lyrics were the more often heard stirring the calm evening air in the rural suburbs of Babylon and in its surrounding provinces. The songs of Zion become then their consolation, and since the sacred scenes of the Temple no longer survived to impart support to them, they began all the more eagerly to read and search their to them inspired scriptures; yes, and to write further such compositions for themselves so that to those bards of the "sad" Captivity we owe most of the sublimer passages of all the Semitic Revelation.

Recopying of course took place, as it had never been so pushed on before; and it was done by men who lived near Babylon among the Persian garrisons as well as im- mediately within the "Cities of the Medes. Here then was Judaism in the heart of Media which was even more Zoroastrian than Per- siaproper or than Persian Babylonia. Was not Ragha itself a chief one of those very "Cities of the Medes" to which allusion is twice made categorically in Kings; Ragha which was a very hot-bed of Zoroastrianism?

Surely Ra- gha, as almost the center of the tale of Tobit, has high claims to have been at least one of those places where the tribes were originally placed. These imperial people, as we see from Ezra and his successors, knew much of the "Great God" of their new subjects; and that the Jewish leaders knew something of their faith, in recipro- cating interest, it would be ridiculous to doubt; informa- tionon the one side here of course presupposes information on the other.

Avidity is none too strong an expression to describe the curiosity with which the gifted Semites must have questioned every Persian priest among their other new found fellow citizens, though in the case of the Babylo- nians the first ferocities of resentment must be allowed time to have worn away. And what were whose names were these angelic beings echoed everywhere among their new-found friends?

If then they could really understand that these noble words meant in their first ap- plication more, far more, than the titles of mere angels, :hat they were actually the descriptive appellations of Ps attributes see above, and only then later personified ; as His first creatures, how striking this must have ap- peared to them. And what was this deep doctrine "as to thought, as to word, and as to deed"? Surely it is impossible that the Jewish schools of Babylon, not to speak again of those in the "Cities of the Medes," should not have known something about the faith of their Persian king, whose troops and courtiers, and beyond all question whose priests also, swarmed on every side with the usual staffs of as- sisting acolytes.

Ignorance here seems simply inconceiv- able. They must have been little indeed like their succes- sors, the well-known Jewish seers of keenest wit in Baby- lon, if they knew nothing of all this. Unlike indeed the men who founded the impressive schools at that great center, and who wrote our Exilic Bible for us, with our finest Talmud; little of their kind indeed were they, if they did not find out all that Cyrus's priests could tell them, while the great King was doubtless himself seen often in his first Capitol both in ordinary imperial resi- dence and in the ever-intervening crises of his reign.

Re- member how closely even an Alexander some centuries later on could question the Persian Destoors as to their lore with its impressive creed while at later than the latter's date Jewish stories were half pure Persian in Medish scenes; see above. Every Exile prophet, whose works have survived to us, shows that he breathed a new found atmosphere - ; though he may have learned the Persian tenets by hearsay only and at second or indeed only at third hand, just as they must have later heard of the great inscriptions when they were newly cut and of many a predecessor of them now long since vanished, for that their replicas were every- where is clear from Behistan.

Those on that rock could not be at all reached by the passing wayfarers who might wish to read. The contrary to this is excluded absolutely from all sane consideration; see also the alleged messages from Cyrus on his side as also those from Darius, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes; and see their edicts in our Bibles with the throngs of ordinary Persian words and names like Mithra- dates, among those of the Jews. These things do not prove intercourse; they are "intercourse" itself. And as the prophets, so the priests, and the priestly scribes; the devoted men toiled doubly for many a weary day copying and recopying the holy texts.

That they did not restore, interpolate and emend them everywhere is inconceivable, if for no other reason, then because they were often for the most part quite half the time half-legible; and duty itself would call on them to bring the dim tracings back; whole folios and even masses of folios would be also lost, gone doubtless forever.

Emendations were therefore made everywhere at frequent intervals; see above; could this have been avoided? And this took place, as we must clearly see, all the more with regard to the oldest and most sacred parts of Holy Writ. Do we suppose that the skins on which Genesis was painted were really any stronger than those inscribed with the first Isaiah, or that the pig- ments used as ink were less capable of effecting corrosions in the course of time? Often indeed would the oldest scripture stand recopied in the newest handwriting and upon the freshest scroll.

Their new-found ardor, born of their adversities and their new associations, had created the searching diatribes of Ezekiel and of the rest, and it is inconceivable that the re-writers did not add stirring passages even in the oldest documents to their studies in their endeavor to restore and point the meaning here and there. And from us gather our ideas of the "Exilic" elements this let in the still embedded in the Semitic books former through- out the very oldest documents, though of course these very emendations have themselves shared somewhat the fate of their primeval predecessors.

Time and accident, travel, exile, war and sacrilege have of course changed text after text, and this beyond all question even in the oldest books. Yet what original is not so hard to recognize simply is ; because the Exilic interpolations are so clear. I will not prolong this point; this conclusion is but intended to be a short remark. Everywhere throughout the oldest books of the pre- Exilic Bibles, the re- writers inserted their keener thoughts: so that "pre-Exilic" is a very dubious term. We must search the very texts of the Hexateuch for it if we would do our work, for Exilic matter must be everywhere.

With this I close my brief essay, begun at the request of a distinguished friend, but here expanded far beyond the limits of a short Appendix, all that was at first in- tended. For a greater substitute more hastily struck off, still see Appendix IV of the able conservative work of the Rev. Wright on Daniel, Vol. II, Exilic matter crops out everywhere throughout. It is better than Deus, Zeus, which referred to the shining sky; better than "God," far better in its origin at least; for, curiously enough, it ex- presses the same supervening ideas that we have in the Hebrew Yahveh which was later thought to mean "the being One," the "I am that I am.

The Amesha Spent a. While the six characteristics virtues would not be the proper word are absolutely the main laws of a right- eous universe, clear and pure. Simple indeed they are, as all things universal must be common too, as the breath- ; 1 An unquestionably later interpolation of Exilic origin.

Here they are in a sense collected ; and in them all that is fittest for expression speaks to us. Not of themselves only do they thus impel us, once merely uttered, and then left wandering, scattered as it were amidst an innumerable host of other similarly treasured spiritual things. Gems of imperishable cost they would be, or they are, even then as so dispersed, and so existing to us, though almost irretrievably hidden amidst the throngs of other beauty from our most eager sight.

And so indeed they actually once lay strewn like jewels of first water all dull and unpolished and rarely recognized in the bed-rock of their unwrought mines or buried in their native clay; vague surmises were they ever even then of the eternal way in which the beneficial powers sometimes work for us for good. But here, as seen, they are gathered up for us; not like the glittering objects in a diadem, that would be indeed too low an image, not like the flowers upon a full-flushed tree, but like the solar systems around their central orb. Like this these all-pervading order- forces revolve around the throne of their Great Sover- eign; nay more, they actuate the very Person of the God Omnipotent, in honor they are not His decora- tions; far from it, God forbid.

They are His very Na- ture. He is the self-dividing, all enclosing Prism of them all, the One of glorious hues that fold and unfold them- selves in everlasting light. They are in a word God's character, than which no further thought is thinkable. Asha, the very first law of all our better consciousness, here even seriously gains in its application, marvelous as such a thing may seem to some of us to be.

It, Asha, is indeed itself and in itself, Heaven's and nature's moral guide, here declared also to be the first firstprinciple of God's eternal being. It is lifted up by all that there is in the conception of the divine personality, brought into operation, becoming at once when estab- lished among the Six a mighty challenging idea flinging its defiance at that one gigantic, but malign element, its opposite, the Lie, a spirit demon which withers us on every side.

It proclaimed the Truth in the post-ultimate mean- ing of the word, asserting that there was indeed such a thing as a law actual, and this not as a pointless senti- ment, feebly fluttering, but as the very first instinct of God's character. From eternity past it has been the same, so in the vital present, and to all coming futurity will it abide unchangeable.

Ifwe, who struggle to maintain honor, believe God to be indeed a person, here is a support immeasurable for us. The great crucified but risen Christ of faith cheers all our efforts on, for has an almighty mind to harbor it and to it guard it, to assist it, and proclaim it in the very ultimate essence of its worth; for of such a mind is it indeed an all-controlling, dominant, though merely regulative part.

What a consolation indeed for those who think Truth possible and who believe in God in any sense of Him ; to think that there is at least one person who is True, and such a Person! And we see how beautifully such a creed applies itself. Abandon honor and He vanishes. There is no God but the true God, the Asha- God. But like all things of its nature the growth of this great but simple principle, in its recognition of course I mean, was, as I say, but gradual. It developed at slowly enough indeed, as we may first both most readily conjecture and concede, with languid signs of life as its first glimmer shone among the vague dreams of sentient beings, glowing feebly into fuller light.

And elsewhere and aside from either, it seems to have been in fact the very last and most remote of all the ideas to be recognized as concentered and so elevated in the forms of ancient creeds, as at all in any way a particular trait of any one of all the beings called "divine," not even of the chief of them, so luxuriantly depicted as they are in the wreaths of our immortal song.

Even in the pre-Gathic age it, Asha of the Holy Truth, was of course surmised dimly as a universal regulative power but only by degrees did it unfold itself into clear ; consciousness as it grew, as all things like it must. That is to say, the very first idea of it as a concept developed but tardily as our race rose from its animal predecessors.

Some sort of consecutive sequence may indeed have even revealed itself to the instincts of the higher animals; the next beneath us but ; it is better to confine ourselves to man. The observed regularity in the sequence of natural phe- nomena first riveted attention as we grew human; espe- cially the heavenly bodies seemed to follow some rule, chief of all and naturally the God-like sun, which was often seen quite unclouded for long periods in lands called Iran.

Its august reappearances followed Law even in its super- vening changes in situation and intensity, with occasional eclipse. Without one phase of it planting would be impossible, without an- other harvest, without a third the source of tonic health. Soon the moon, its brother luminary, for the moon is masculine both in Veda and Avesta, took up the tale with his five changes,and with these the reverting atmospheric modifications seemed to harmonize.

The main features of the advancing year-time seemed ever calculable. The great wind-storms of the Marutis, with their driven clouds flying on before them, seemed to arrive at certain intervals in many regions including India, with the return of and snow elsewhere and mostly ice hated, the periodic rains torrential or soft and fertilizing, the dews and the flowering earth itself these all followed: one another at seeming regulated intervals it was Asha, ; order.

Endeared among was the inextinguishable all else fire not only blazing in the ever self-consuming God of day, but in the very bowels of the earth, known too in the caloric of plants, flaming also in forked lightning in the heavens, snake-like in figure; again it was the friend of man on hearth and altar. Asha became its very synonym, and so from this its sacredness, from regularity; it was 3 indeed "God's son. All was the unvarying forms of recurring certainty; circling it was Asha, rita, "rhythm.

What wonder then that they began to think that the thoughts of God were similar, supposing always that they had at that time any distinct idea whatsoever of a God, 8 A frequent expression as applied to it in the late Avesta. It was "nature" always and everywhere, natura, "to be born," and to be born again, natura, not futura merely, but natura, to be rhythmically born in a reap- pearance never unreasoned in its process, seed, stem, leaves, fruit, to seed, stem, leaves and fruit again, stream, mist, cloud, rain, to stream, mist, cloud, rain again, spring freshness, summer bloom, autumn harvest, winter frost with cheer or misery, to spring, bloom, harvest, frost again.

It was law forever fulfilling itself, Asha, Rita, Rhythm. So in the old Veda, in those early days, when man had however somewhat begun to form himself; Rita was so distinctly recognized that the very ceremonial service to the Heavenly Spirits followed its course in imitation. But it was only in the stern Gatha, rough and sparse but glorious, that the Rita, Asha, became so exalted as the passionate honor of an Holy God in a sense supreme, a deity whose creature, the very foremost of all the other 4 divine beings it was declared to be. What an exaltation, let me again assert it, for simple but awful justice, the first pure principle of all sane consciousness at least in man, and as we see, the first spiritual force in God.

He is not an "infinite person," which could only be the language of 4 Mithra, a noble God indeed like the most exalted of our Archangels, whose cult rivaled Christianity for a long time. Vohu Manah. Then Vohu Manah, the "Good Mind," was again a thing enthroned, and for that alone, if for nothing else, made eminent.

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This was again too a curious thought in a savage age in far off Persia to be placed in such position for then it was that the gods of Greece wrangled like vulgar households and even our Jewish Yahveh was a "consuming fire. It was more than a tame negation, a life- less acquiescence; it was a warm breath of active sym- pathy, a passion pervading conscious nature everywhere like a befriending instinct, a slender thread of sweetness in all the intricacies of interior feeling that gives us hope through the maniac jars of this thing which we call life. Vohu Manah it was all that is holiest in emotions, fervor ; inpure breasts and brains; the quiet force in the love of man for his brother the power in the noble love of man for ; woman so deep and so transforming, fierce too also at times, past holding ; Vohu Manah it is the father's sol- emn all-giving watchfulness which makes the name of "son" our deepest word.

Above all else it is the mother-love, that nerve of all controlling tenderness planted in every female soul over a little thing endowed for that very reason with a charm unspeakable, to win and keep. And this Vohu Manah is again not left, according to the Gatha, a blind, un- guided force, though beatific, in the world of sentient be- 5 Definition implies limit; see below. With Khshathra we come upon the deeply fundamental element of Rule.

Not men, nor angels can persist without it. Some forceful form of right is needed to control and maintain the Law and Love, shaping their every application Khshathra, government, administration! With anarchy all property would turn worthless; no man could earn his bread; progress would be imperilled. Khshathra is command, severe indeed at times. Strength must emerge from commonplace while commonplace resists it. Conspiracy is unveiled by govern- ment law put in force, Khshathra as "strength" meant discipline,combination with organization ; without it ral- lying points would be difficult, and the dush-Khshathra would sweep the isolated hordes away.

Fields could not be cultivated save from Aeshma, "Raid fury of the bloody spear. And what a satisfaction have we here again, who believe the Gatha. Khshathra is not alone a universal law though marvelous indeed as such he would be, or he is part of the moving crystallization of the ever re-forming universe the forceful way in which ; things come and hold together, while like the flying blood they circulate. It is more it is the rule of our Sovereign : God over us. Where would be, indeed, the Truth in- stinct of sincerity though it is?

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